Journal archives for January 2017

January 17, 2017

Over 80 species in section Anisophyllum for iNaturalist!

I recently IDed what appears to be a Yucatan Peninsula endemic and it made me curious to know how many species had been confirmed on iNaturalist. So I looked it up, and there are 84 species that have at least one observation on iNaturalist! At least one species is not confirmable and a few more require verification (either the observations need confirmation or the species concept itself needs confirmation), but even 80 is a respectable number and I'm proud to say that I have reviewed most of them at 2,078 of the 2,108 observations on the site! Thanks to all the people (whatever your nationality) who have posted the observations and keep up the good work! I look forward to all the new observations I'll get to see this year!

As for doing more for Euphorbia s.l., I'm slowly chipping away at learning the species. Hopefully, I'll get to know more of them so I can help those with slightly broader interests than my own. In the meantime, I have tried to get an ID for all the observations that I have been tagged in.

Posted on January 17, 2017 04:17 by nathantaylor nathantaylor | 4 comments | Leave a comment

January 25, 2017

Species list for sections and subgenera

For all the members not in section Anisophyllum (which is in the taxonomy of iNaturalist), there isn't a list for each subgroup. This post will hopefully resolve that. The list follows the Flora of North America. Please let me know if I miss a species.

Section Alectoroctonum (subg. Chamaesyce):
Euphorbia antisyphilitica
Euphorbia aaron-rossii
Euphorbia bicolor
Euphorbia bilobata
Euphorbia corollata
Euphorbia cotinifolia (I; occasionally cultivated)
Euphorbia curtisii
Euphorbia discoidalis
Euphorbia exserta
Euphorbia graminea
Euphorbia hexagona
Euphorbia innocua
Euphorbia ipecacuanhae
Euphorbia macropus
Euphorbia marginata
Euphorbia mercurialina
Euphorbia misera
Euphorbia nephradenia
Euphorbia polyphylla
Euphorbia pubentissima
Euphorbia strictior
Euphorbia wrightii
Euphorbia xantii (I; commonly cultivated)

Section Crepidaria (subg. Euphorbia; syn. Pedilanthus):
Euphorbia bracteata (I; cultivated)
Euphorbia lomellii (I; commonly cultivated)
Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. smallii

Subgenus Esula (syn. Tithymalus):
Euphorbia agraria (sect. Esula) (I)
Euphorbia alta (sect. Helioscopia)
Euphorbia austrotexana (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia brachycera (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia chamaesula (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia commutata (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia crenulata (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia cyparissias (sect. Esula) (I)
Euphorbia dendroides (sect. Pachycladae) (I)
Euphorbia exigua (sect. Exiguae) (I)
Euphorbia falcata (sect. Pithyusa) (I)
Euphorbia georgiana (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia helioscopia (sect. Helioscopia) (I)
Euphorbia helleri (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia lathyris (sect. Lathyris; monotypic section) (I)
Euphorbia longicruris (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia lurida (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia myrsinites (sect. Myrsiniteae) (I)
Euphorbia oblongata (sect. Helioscopia) (I)
Euphorbia ouachitana (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia platyphyllos (sect. Helioscopia) (I)
Euphorbia peplidion (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia peplus (sect. Tithymalus) (I)
Euphorbia purpurea (sect. Helioscopia)
Euphorbia rigida (sect. Myrsiniteae) (I)
Euphorbia roemeriana (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia segetalis (sect. Paralias) (I)
Euphorbia schizoloba (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia spathulata (sect. Helioscopia)
Euphorbia serrata (sect. Chylogala) (I)
Euphorbia terracina (sect. Pachycladae) (I)
Euphorbia tetrapora (sect. Tithymalus)
Euphorbia texana (sect. Helioscopia)
Euphorbia trichotoma (sect. Paralias)
Euphorbia virgata (sect. Esula) (I)
Euphorbia yaquiana (sect. Tithymalus)

Section Nummulariopsis (subg. Euphorbia)
Euphorbia floridana
Euphorbia inundata
Euphorbia rosescens
Euphorbia telephioides

Section Pacificae (subg. Euphorbia)
Euphorbia haeleeleana (Hawaii)

Section Cubanthus (subg. Euphorbia)
Euphorbia punicea (I; cultivated)

Section Euphorbia (subg. Euphorbia)
Euphorbia candelabrum (I; cultivated)
Euphorbia grandicornis (I; cultivated)
Euphorbia lactea (I; commonly cultivated)
Euphorbia resonifera (I; cultivated)
Euphorbia trigona (I; commonly cultivated)

Section Goniostema (subg. Euphorbia)
Euphorbia milii (I; commonly cultivated)

Section Monodenium (subg. Euphorbia)
Euphorbia ritchiei (I; cultivated)

Section Tirucalli (subg. Euphorbia)
Euphorbia tirucalli (I; commonly cultivated)

Section Poinsettia (subg. Chamaesyce)
Euphorbia bifurcata
Euphorbia cuphosperma
Euphorbia cyathophora
Euphorbia davidii
Euphorbia dentata
Euphorbia eriantha
Euphorbia exstipulata
Euphorbia heterophylla
Euphorbia pinetorum
Euphorbia pulcherrima (I; commonly cultivated)
Euphorbia radians

Subgenus Esula sections
Section Chylogala
Euphorbia serrata
Section Esula
Euphorbia agraria
Euphorbia cyparissias
Euphorbia virgata
Section Exiguae
Euphorbia exigua
Section Helioscopia
Euphorbia alta
Euphorbia helioscopia (I)
Euphorbia oblongata (I)
Euphorbia polychroma (I; commonly cultivated)
Euphorbia platyphyllos (I)
Euphorbia purpurea
Euphorbia spathulata
Euphorbia texana
Section Lathyris (monotypic section)
Euphorbia lathyris (I)
Section Myrsiniteae
Euphorbia myrsinites (I)
Euphorbia rigida (I; commonly cultivated)
Section Pachycladae
Euphorbia dendroides (I)
Euphorbia terracina (I)
Section Paralias
Euphorbia segetalis (I)
Euphorbia trichotoma
Section Patellares
Euphorbia amygdaloides (I; commonly cultivated)
Euphorbia characias (I; commonly cultivated)
Section Pithyusa
Euphorbia falcata (I)
Section Tithymalus
Euphorbia austrotexana
Euphorbia brachycera
Euphorbia chamaesula
Euphorbia commutata
Euphorbia crenulata
Euphorbia georgiana
Euphorbia helleri
Euphorbia longicruris
Euphorbia lurida
Euphorbia ouachitana
Euphorbia peplidion
Euphorbia peplus (I)
Euphorbia roemeriana
Euphorbia schizoloba
Euphorbia tetrapora
Euphorbia yaquiana

Subgenus Athymalus
Section Anthacanthae
Euphorbia caput-medusae
Euphorbia polygona

List of subgroups in the US

Subgenus Chamaesyce
Section Anisophyllum
Section Poinsettia
Section Alectoroctonum
Subgenus Esula
Section Lathyris
Section Helioscopia
Section Myrsiniteae
Section Pithyusa
Section Chylogala
Section Patellares
Section Pachycladae
Section Exiguae
Section Paralias
Section Tithymalus
Section Esula
Subgenus Euphorbia
Section Pacificae (only Hawaii)
New World
Section Cubanthus (cultivated; see E. punicea)
Section Nummulariopsis
Section Crepidaria (cultivated; see E. lomelii and E. tithymaloides)
Old World
Section Tirucalli (cultivated)
Section Goniostema (cultivated)
Section Monadenium (cultivated)
Section Euphorbia (cultivated)

Full list of subgroups worldwide (to section):

Subgenus Athymalus
Section Antso
Section Pseudacalypha
Section Lyciopsis
Section Crotonoides
Section Somalica
Section Balsamis
Section Anthacanthae

Subgenus Chamaesyce
Old World
Section Espinosae
Section Articulofrticosae
Section Cheirolepidium
Section Eremophyton
Section Scatorhizae
Section Denisiae (Madagascar)
Section Bosseriae (Madagascar)
Section Plagianthae (Madagascar)
Section Frondosae
Section Tenellae
Section Gueinziae
New World
Section Crossadenia
Section Anisophyllum
Section Poinsettia
Section Alectoroctonum

Subgenus Esula
Section Lathyris
Section Lagascae
Section Holophyllum
Section Helioscopia
Section Myrsiniteae
Section Pithyusa
Section Sclerocyathium
Section Calyptratae
Section Chylogala
Section Szovitsiae
Section Patellares
Section Herpetorrhizae
Section Guyonianae
Section Pachycladae
Section Biumbellatae
Section Exiguae
Section Paralias
Section Tithymalus
Section Arvales
Section Esula

Subgenus Euphorbia
Section Pacificae
New World
Section Tanquahuete
Section Cubanthus
Section Lactifluae
Section Mesophyllae
Section Euphorbiastrum
Section Calyculatae
Section Portulacastrum
Section Nummulariopsis
Section Crepidaria
Section Stachydium
Section Brasilienses
Old World
Section Pachysanthae
Section Pervilleanae
Section Tirucalli
Section Rubellae
Section Goniostema
Section Deuterocalli
Section Denisophorbia
Section Monadenium
Section Euphorbia

Posted on January 25, 2017 21:34 by nathantaylor nathantaylor | 1 comments | Leave a comment

Euphorbia subgroups

There are six major groups in Euphorbia: sect. Anisophyllum, sect. Crepidaria, sect. Alectoroctonum, sect. Poinsettia, subg. Esula, and sect. Nummulariopsis.

Section Alectoroctonum (synonymous with the genera Agaloma and Tithymalopsis) is a diverse group and is represented by herbaceous and succulent plants with primarily alternate leaves that are symmetric at the base and entire. Many members in this group have petal-like appendages, which differentiate it from sect. Numulariopsis and subgenus Esula. The cyathia are generally not held in a single terminal pleiochasium, as is usually the case in sect. Poinsettia (E. marginata and E. corollata are exceptions to this). It includes plants like Candelilla (Euphorbia antisiphylitica), Snow on the Prairie (Euphorbia marginata), Flowering Spurge (Euphorbia corollata), Cliff Spurge (Euphorbia misera), and many others.

Section Anisophyllum (synonymous with genus Chamaesyce) represents the group of herbaceous plants with opposite leaves with unequal bases, dorsi-ventral stems, interpetiolar stipules, and C4 photosyntheis. The group includes the mat-forming plants like Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata), Prostrate Spurge (Euphorbia prostrata), Whitemargin Sandmat (Euphorbia albomarginata), and many others. For a full list of species in the US, go here:

Section Crepidaria (synonymous with genus Pedilanthus) represents a group of succulents (similar to Candelilla) with zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetric) cyathia. In the US, it is only known from cultivation and potentially a small population in southern Florida. This group includes Slipper Plant (Euphorbia lomelii) and Devil's Backbone (Euphorbia tithymaloides).

Section Poinsettia (synonymous with genus, well, Poinsettia) represents a group of herbaceous plants with large bract-like leaves that are often colorful. The cyathia usually have 3 or fewer glands per cyathium but a couple species have more. The cyathia are also held in inflorescences that terminate the apices of stems. The group includes Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima), Green Poinsettia (Euphorbia dentata), Painted Leaf (Euphorbia cyathophora), and others.

Section Nummulariopsis represents a small group of erect herbaceous plants in the Southeastern US that appear superficially similar to the narrow-leafed species in sect. Alectoroctonum or like a small, linear-leafed species of subg. Esula. The group includes Euphorbia inundata, E. floridana, E. rosescens, and E. telephioides. For more information about the US species, please click here.

Subgenus Esula (synonymous with genus Tithymalus) represents a large group of mostly herbaceous plants that typically have terminal pleiochasia (inflorescences), alternate stem leaves, and opposite inflorescence leaves. Widespread and represented by many species. The group includes plants like Petty Spurge (Euphorbia peplus; not to be confused with E. peplis), Cypress Spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias), Caper Spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), and Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula).

Subgenus Esula sections
Section Chylogala (I) - Section of single species introduced to the United States. Only representative in the US is Euphorbia serrata and it may have been eradicated.
Section Esula (I) - Section of only species introduced to the United States.
Section Exiguae (I) - Section of only species introduced to the United States.
Section Helioscopia (N/I) - Section of species both native and introduced to the United States. US species characterized by glands that lack horns, leaves that are serrated, and fruits that are usually warty.
Section Lathyris (I; monotypic section) - Section of single species introduced to the United States. Lower leaves opposite, often forming an X-shape when viewed from the top. Gland horns flattened and rounded.
Section Myrsiniteae (I) - Section of only species introduced to the United States. Leaves thick, somewhat succulent; gland horns flattened, broadest towards the tips.
Section Pachycladae (I) - Section of only species introduced to the United States. Two very dissimilar species occur in this section: E. dendroides and E. terracina. E. dendroides is woody and has glands without horns. E. terracina has serrated leaves and glands with horns.
Section Paralias (N/I) - Section of species both native and introduced to the United States. Mostly shore species with closely set leaves but includes the introduced E. segitallis which is currently only known in the US from San Diego California. Also includes E. paralias and E. trichotoma.
Section Patellares (I) - Section of only species introduced to the United States; only represented by E. amygdaloides and E. characias. Inflorescences large and showy.
Section Pithyusa (I) - Section of only species introduced to the United States.
Section Tithymalus (N/I) - Section of mostly species native to the United States; only E. peplus is introduced.

Some commonly cultivated groups

Subgenus Euphorbia
Section Cubanthus
Section Euphorbia
Section Goniostema
Section Monodenium
Section Tirucalli

Subgenus Athymalus
Section Anthacanthae

Posted on January 25, 2017 21:56 by nathantaylor nathantaylor | 1 comments | Leave a comment

Observation Fields

Welcome to the project! To start, I figured I should explain the recommended observation fields. I wouldn't worry too much about these if you feel overwhelmed by them or don't know what to put. They are, after all, recommended and not required. However, if you are inclined to learn a bit more about Euphorbia I'll try to give an idea of what some of the more confusing fields mean.

There are several basic growth forms in Euphorbia that are useful for identification. The major ones I'm looking for are prostrate, ascending, erect, shrub, or tree. You can also combine these for something like erect/ascending or shrub/tree. I'm sure there are many more that habit terms one could come up with to describe the shape of a tree and you are more than welcome to if you want. However, there aren't many species that become trees in the United States, so the detail isn't as pertinent as it might be for groups with more tree species. The only natives species that I can think of occur in Hawaii.

Euphorbia taxonomic groups:
If you're unsure on this, just keep it at unknown. I may eventually change it but this part is rather complicated. Euphorbia is separated out into several subgroups. I am following the Flora of North America treatment that just came out. They include 5 sections and 3 subgenera. I have provided two other journal posts to help explain this field. The easiest way is to go to the list of species for each section and find your species.

Posted on January 25, 2017 22:11 by nathantaylor nathantaylor | 2 comments | Leave a comment