Journal archives for February 2021

February 07, 2021


Horsetails are poisonous to animals in larger quantities. Horses and pigs are especially sensitive to horsetails. Consumption of large amounts causes intoxication of animals and muscle inertia. There is a paralysis of the central nervous system and pathological changes in internal organs. The share of horsetails in hay significantly reduces the milk yield of cows. In the fossil material, it was not found that ''horsetails'' was commonly eaten by herbivores. However Equisetum and its relatives may have been an important component in the diet of sauropod dinosaurs (Hummel et al. 2008; Pickrell 2019) ...

Posted on February 07, 2021 05:34 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 08, 2021


Equisetum hybrids are often found literally between parents, but are also documented from places where one parent and sometimes even two parents have never been diagnosed; unfortunately, there are no biogeographical and population studies on this subject; however, according to HAUKE, R. L., hybrids may be better adapted to unfavorable conditions and remain in the area even when the parents are no longer there …

Posted on February 08, 2021 01:58 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 09, 2021

Marchantia polymorpha

Marchantia polymorpha subsp. montivagans is the largest of the three currently distinguished subspecies, up to 2 cm wide, in dense mats, pale or yellow-green when young, but become brown or purple when old, thick and stiff. The upper surface is covered with clear dots, it's air pores.

The other two Marchantia polymorpha subspecies differ in size and in the presence of a visible black centerline.

Subsp. polymorpha resembles subsp. montivagans, but has a thinner texture, up to 12 mm wide and a wide, visible center line.

Subsp. ruderalis, up to 15 mm wide, with a central black line that is irregularly developed and often broken. It is the most numerous, most widespread and known of three subspecies.

Posted on February 09, 2021 01:33 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 1 comment | Leave a comment


Names (synonyms) used in commerce;
Equisetum japonicum (Japan horsetail) and Equisetum camtschatcense (Kamchatka horsetail)
= E. hyemale ssp./var. hyemale or ssp./var. affine (it depends on what is sold) ...

Posted on February 09, 2021 03:18 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Juncus spiralis

The cultivar Juncus effusus L. subsp. effusus 'Spiralis'
(syn. Juncus spiralis)

Posted on February 09, 2021 03:32 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 0 comments | Leave a comment


There is no distinction within species Equisetum arvense L. (subspecies or botanical varieties).
There is only a pure species, all other divisions are taxonomic errors (R.L. Hauke) ...

Posted on February 09, 2021 03:36 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 0 comments | Leave a comment

February 10, 2021

Equisetum × trachyodon

Equisetum × trachyodon (A.Braun) W.D.J.Koch
= Equisetum hyemale L. × Equisetum variegatum Schleich. ex F. Weber & D. Mohr.

/ Synonyms /

Equisetum mackaii (Newman) Brichan
Equisetum mackayi (Newman) Brichan

Equisetum hyemale ssp. trachyodon A.Br.

Equisetum hiemale var. doellii Milde
Equisetum hiemale var. trachyodon A.Braun ex Döll
Equisetum hyemale var. jesupii (A.A.Eat.) Victorin
Equisetum hyemale var. mackayi Newman
Equisetum hyemale var. trachyodon (A.K.H.Braun) Döll
Equisetum variegatum var. anglicum Milde
Equisetum variegatum var. concolor Milde
Equisetum variegatum var. continentale Milde
Equisetum variegatum var. jesupii A.A.Eat. ex Gilbert
Equisetum variegatum var. trachyodon (A.K.H.Braun) J.D.Hooker fil.

Equisetum hyemale f. multirameum (S.F.Blake) Vict.
Equisetum trachyodon f. fuchsii Geissert
Equisetum trachyodon f. geminatum (S.F.Blake) M.Broun
Equisetum trachyodon f. multirameum (S.F.Blake) M.Broun
Equisetum variegatum f. geminatum S.F.Blake
Equisetum variegatum f. multirameum S.F.Blake

Hippochaete fuchsii (Geissert) H.P.Fuchs & Geissert
Hippochaete trachyodon (A.Br.) Boern.
Hippochaete hyemalis var. jesupii (A.A.Eat.) Farw.
Hippochaete variegata var. jesupii (A.A.Eat.) Farw.

Equisetum × jesupii (A.A.Eaton) Christenh. & Husby, comb. nov.,
for North American samples under this hybrid, if someone prefers,
for E. hyemale ssp./var. affine (Engelm.) A.A.Eat. = E. praealtum Raf.

Posted on February 10, 2021 05:08 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 2 comments | Leave a comment

February 11, 2021


Equisetum arvense is a live fossil and medicinal plant, but it is also a very persistent weed.
Only a small rhizome is enough and this species is already being renewed.
Herbicides are usually ineffective for this species ...

Posted on February 11, 2021 12:59 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 0 comments | Leave a comment


Marchantia polymorpha is a 'dull green'; M. berteroana has brighter green thallus and also has transparent scales on the underside of the thallus which help distinguish it from Marchantia foliacea which has dark purple-brown scales. M. polymorpha has a dark streak in the center of the upper surface: subsp. polymorpha (continuous), subsp. ruderalis (fuzzy), but subsp. montivagans never has such a streak ...

Posted on February 11, 2021 01:01 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Tortula muralis

Tortula muralis ssp. muralis - Peristome well developed, with spirally twisted filiform teeth; var. muralis - long hyaline hairpoint; var. aestiva - short point. Tortula muralis ssp. obtusifolia (former name Tortula obtusifolia) - Peristome mostly reduced, sometimes without filiform teeth. T. muralis obtusifolia and T. muralis muralis var. aestiva both have short hairpoints and difficult to distinguish. T. muralis muralis var. muralis are very similar to T. muralis muralis var. aestiva but have longer hairpoints. Tortula lingulata is easily distinguished from T. muralis ssp. muralis even in the field. However, for distinguishing between T. lingulata and T. muralis ssp. obtusifolia, spore size is the best character. / However, according to many specialists, this taxonomy may be misplaced and the main role may be played by an environmental factor, strongly modifying the appearance and causing erroneous data, which, not supported by long observations, are eagerly published because the paper counts, sad but often true.

Posted on February 11, 2021 01:04 PM by radekwalkowiak radekwalkowiak | 1 comment | Leave a comment