Okanagan Rail Trail Flora and Fauna

Under development.

Posted on November 26, 2021 23:00 by darylnolan darylnolan | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Wet weather brings out the frogs

Dear lorikeet observers,

Thanks to all of you who are checking for lorikeets, particularly @janice220, who is making contributions nearly every week.

On another note, you all might be interested in checking out the Australian Museum's FrogID app. It is free and pretty easy to use. It lets you record frog calls on your property or elsewhere and will identify them for you and then you can send them in so they can be logged with all the other data that is being collected. Right now, I have 5 species of frogs calling within 50 metres of my home.

This is a great project as there has been a mass mortality event of frogs this year occurring on the east coast of Australia and this data will help to determine what the impact of this die off has been and if certain species have been more impacted that others.

Have a great week and if the lorikeets are scarce listen for frogs.

Yours,

David
Maya
Lauren

Posted on November 26, 2021 22:03 by david4262 david4262 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Guide to the identification of species of the genus Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville, 1831 of continental North America north of Mexico

The genus Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville, 1831 is a member of the tribe Anisoscelini in the subfamily Coreinae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae), including relatively few species. In continental North America north of Mexico, five genera and 21 species of the tribe are reliably known, including 12 species of Leptoglossus

Although external characters may identify all of these species, their misidentifications in iNaturalist are not uncommon. Unfortunately, all existing keys for identifying genus species are either somewhat outdated (Hussey, 1953; McPherson et al., 1990), or include all species of genera (including those outside the United States and Canada) (Allen, 1969; Brailovsky, 2014), or, conversely, species of the fauna of only certain states (Baranowski and Slater, 1986).

In addition, existing identification keys are designed to identify collected specimens and often are based on features that are difficult to see in photos. This key I have tried to compile on the contrary, primarily for identifying observations in nature. To help observers identify genus species more reliably, I have attempted to compile a simplified key for species living in the continental United States and Canada.

The key implies the identification of adults only because, in nymphs, many important characters are not visible or poorly developed. Nymphs are easily distinguished by the absence of fully developed wings. Additionally, there is a list of species known from Mexico with their features. For convenience, species are not divided into groups (see Brailovsky, 2014), because some characters used to separate them are not always available to the observer.

Of course, I would sincerely appreciate any comments or clarifications. I am not a professional taxonomist, so please do not judge my attempt too harshly. My main goal was to better understand the identification of these species myself.

I also apologize for any grammatical and stylistic errors - English is not my first language. Of course, I will be grateful for any advice on correcting the text.

I am very grateful to @michaelpirrello and @ncb1221 for discussing the differences in Leptoglossus species , and hints, which gave me many good ideas.

I would like to sincerely thank the community members who have posted their photos under a license that allows its use. This has given me an excellent opportunity to add illustrations to this text. Of course, I will remove it here if there are any objections to such use, leaving a direct link to the observation.

 Members of the genus Leptoglossus are relatively easy to distinguish from other North American Coreidae by combining the shape of the hind tibia and antennae. The tibiae always have noticeable dilations on both outer and inner sides. At the same time, extensions are always noticeably not reaching the apex of tibiae and either elongate (lanceolate) or have more or less deep notches separated by denticles. Some species of Acanthocephala have slightly similar hind tibiae among Coreidae. Still, they are easily distinguished by head form, which does not go forward beyond the base of the antennal base, except for narrow tylus flattened from sides. Segments of the antennae of species of genus Leptoglossus are cylindrical (not widened and not flattened). The first is approximately equal to the distance from its base to the base of the head, or noticeably longer (but not shorter).

Since some genera of the tribe Anisoscelini are also sometimes confused with Leptoglossus, it seems helpful to list them with an explanation of the differences and features, in descending order of external resemblance to the genus.

List of the genera of the tribe Anisoscelini that occur in the continental United States and Canada

Narnia Stål, 1862

All six known species of the genus were reported from the south of the United States. 

Species of this genus are somewhat similar to Leptoglossus with narrow extensions of hind tibiae, and sometimes they are confused either with L. occidentalis (more often species of subgenus Narnia s.str. - N. femorata, N. inornata) or with L. clypealis (species of subgenus Xerocoris, first of all, N. snowi). Even one of the species described in the genus Narnia was, in fact, L. occidentalis (see Brailovsky, 2014). There is a modern key for identifying species of the genus (Brailovsky and Barrera, 2013).

Differences from Leptoglossus: the 1st segment of antennae is always noticeably (at least one and a half times) shorter than the distance from its base to the base of the head.

Host plants: cactus (Cactaceae).

Length 12-20 mm.

Chondrocera Laporte, 1832

Only one species in Florida - Chondrocera laticornis Laporte, 1832.

Differences from Leptoglossus: 2nd and 3rd antennomeres are narrowly dilated; dilation of hind tibiae from outside very broad, gradually decreasing backward, with the rounded notch, without denticles; inside narrow and short (about half of tibiae length), with a smooth margin.

The coloration is light brown, the anterior part of the pronotum, part of the head, femora, and ventral side of the body lighter yellowish or greenish. Contrasting light spots or bands are always absent.

Host plants: Turnera, Passiflora.

Length 16-18 mm.

Anisoscelis Latreille, 1829

One of the species of subgenus Bitta is known in south Texas - Anisoscelis affinis Westwood, 1840. The recently described closely related Anisoscelis luridus Brailovsky, 2016 is also possible there.

It is similar to Chondrocera laticornis in general appearance and shape of hind tibiae. Still, antennal segments in adults are not dilated (unlike nymphs), and dilations of hind tibiae are more extensive, almost the same width and length as the whole body behind the pronotum.

Host plants: Passiflora.

Length 13-18 mm.

Phthiacnemia Brailovsky, 2009

In the south of the USA (from California to Florida), the only species from the previously considered separate tribe Leptoscelini, Phthiacnemia picta (Drury, 1773) (= Phthia picta), is distributed.

It differs from all Anisoscelini in the USA and Canada by not widening hind tibiae. Black, sometimes bluish coloration, with variable (or even absent) red or yellow patterns.

Host plants: Most likely breeds only on Solanum nigrum but can feed on many plants (see Baranowski & Slater, 1986).

Length 14-16 mm.

Narnia snowi © Robert Webster

Narnia inornata © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Narnia inornata © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Chondrocera laticornis By Lila

Chondrocera laticornis By Lila

Anisoscelis affinis © jmmaes

Phthiacnemia picta © Diogo Luiz

Narnia snowi

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Narnia inornata

© Juan Cruzado Cortés, CC BY-SA

Narnia inornata, head and 1st antennomere

© Juan Cruzado Cortés, CC BY-SA

Chondrocera laticornis

By Lila, CC 0

Chondrocera laticornis, antennae

By Lila, CC 0

Anisoscelis affinis

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Phthiacnemia picta

© Diogo Luiz, CC BY-SA

Key to the identification of species of the genus Leptoglossus of continental North America north of Mexico:

1a Tylus (apex of the head) is extended into a narrow projection that protrudes far forward (the projection length is about equal to the width of the 1st antennomere, or longer).

Dilation of hind tibiae is narrow as in occidentalis and corculus but slightly dentate in the outer side. It is also well distinguished from these species by always bright and well visible transverse light fascia on corium. The width and sinuosity of this fascia can vary greatly, but it is always located not only on veins but also on the surface of the corium. Similar fascia have L. zonatus. But in this species, the anterior part's pronotum always has two distinctly separated light spots (and hind tibiae with much wider and emarginate extensions). In L. clypealis, the anterior part of the pronotum is usually slightly lighter than the posterior, but the light part does not occur in the form of 2 distinct spots. Sometimes this light part has a rather sharp contrasting border, but it looks like one trapezoidal spot. The general coloration varies from dark brown to reddish, often irregular.

Leptoglossus clypealis Heidemann, 1910

Length is 16-20 mm.

Distribution. Before the middle of the XX century, it was known only from the western United States. Now it is distributed from the Pacific to Atlantic and from Mexico to southern Canada.

Host plants. The main plants on which the species breeds are junipers (Juniperus) (possibly other species of the Cupressaceae family) and fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica); adults also feed on pistachio, almond, and plum (Wheeler, 2018). Some keys mention "ornamental pomegranate."

Leptogloccus clypealis By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago

Leptogloccus clypealis By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago

Leptogloccus clypealis By Mirko Schoenitz

Leptogloccus clypealis © strix_v

Leptogloccus clypealis By pynklynx

Leptogloccus clypealis, wide fascia

By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago, CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis, head and tylus

By Chrissy McClarren and Andy Reago, CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis, hind tibia

By Mirko Schoenitz, CC 0

Leptogloccus clypealis, narrow fascia

© strix_v, CC BY-NC

Leptogloccus clypealis, "usual" fascia

By pynklynx, CC 0

1b Tylus isn’t extended into a narrow projection and doesn’t protrude far forward - only much less (about ½ or less) than the width of the 1st antennomere). - 2

2a Dilations of hind tibiae are narrow, lanceolate, on the outer side, without any clear emargination or denticles. - 3

2b Dilations of hind tibiae are much wider and (or) on the outer side with the visible emargination and denticles. - 4

3a The inner and the outer dilation of the hind tibiae are about equal in length and occupy about ⅔ (less than 70%) of the maximal length of the hind tibiae (note that the lower dilation may be concave at the apex and appear shorter because of this). The apical ("free") part of the tibia is longer than the width of the dilations (outer and inner together). Inner dilation may seem slightly shorter than outer because of the concave edge at the apex.

Coloration is more or less variegated, with light spots (including in the anterior part of the pronotum). The transverse light fascia of corium is always pale, present only on veins, irregular (zigzag).

Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910

Length is 16-18 mm.

Distribution. Until the 1950s, it was occurring only in western North America (east of Colorado). Still, now it is the most widespread species of the genus, having inhabited North America (except the Arctic) and almost all regions of the Earth with suitable climate and host plants.

Host plants are mostly pines (Pinus spp.) and some other conifers (spruce, fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga canadensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Cupressus sempervirens).

3b The inner and the outer dilation of the hind tibiae are unequal in length. The outer occupies more than ⅘ (85% or more, usually about 90%) of the maximal length of the tibia. The apical ("free") part of the tibia is equal to the width of the outer dilation and shorter (usually significantly) than the width of outer and inner together.

Coloration is similar to L. occidentalis but usually less variegated and more monoсchromatic.

Leptoglossus corculus (Say, 1832).

Length is 16-19 mm.

Distribution. East of the U.S. west to Illinois and Kansas, south to Texas.

Host plants are pines (Pinus spp.).

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Ryan Hodnett

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Steve Daniels

Leptoglossus occidentalis © Chris Moody

Leptoglossus corculus By kcthetc1

Leptoglossus corculus © Nathan Richardson

Leptoglossus corculus © Nicole Hartig

Leptoglossus occidentalis

© Ryan Hodnett, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus occidentalis, hind tibia

© Steve Daniels, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus occidentalis, tibia with slightly unequal dilations

© Chris Moody, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus corculus

By kcthetc1, CC 0

Leptoglossus corculus, hind tibia

© Nathan Richardson, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus corculus, hind tibia with short outer dilation (but ~85% of the length of the tibia)

© Nicole Hartig, CC BY-SA

4a Pronotum has separated (the border of differently colored areas clear and contrasting) from the rest of its (dark) surface light spots or stripes. - 5

4b Pronotum is more or less monochromatic - the front and (or) central part of it is often lighter but without contrasting border. - 6

5a Pronotum with a narrow transverse yellowish or reddish stripe in its front part.

It is also well distinguished from all other species by the lateral corners of the pronotum elongated into sharp spines and by bright spots on the underside of the body (the same coloration as the stripe on the pronotum). Segments 2 - 4 of antennae are usually also contrastingly bicolored. The corium is without a light fascia, with a small light spot in the middle.

Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabricius, 1775).

Length is 16-19 mm.

Distribution. The species is distributed in the tropics and the south of the subtropics of the whole world. In the USA, it is known mainly from Texas and Florida. Old records in Iowa (1930) and Missouri (1965) (GBIF) are probably the results of accidental entering; the population there is unlikely. How this relates to reliable observations in Virginia (Naturalist) needs to be clarified.

It is a polyphagous species, feeding on many vegetables, fruits, ornamental and wild plants.

5b Pronotum with a more or less broad yellowish or reddish stripe along all lateral and posterior margins, closing into a ring behind the anterior margin. Corium with a broad bright fascia of the same color (similar to L. clypealis and L. zonatus). Antennae are monochromatic.

Leptoglossus ashmeadi Heidemann, 1909

Its length is 14-16.5 mm.

Distribution. Southeastern USA from Texas to South Carolina. Rare species.

Host plants. Probably the only host plant is the mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum (maybe some other species of the genus as well).

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus gonagra © AnnLazaro

Leptoglossus ashmeadi © amarcianae

Leptoglossus ashmeadi By enne_t

Leptoglossus gonagra

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus gonagra, tibia

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus gonagra, lower side of the body

© AnnLazaro, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus ashmeadi

© amarcianae, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus ashmeadi

By enne_t, CC 0

5c Pronotum in the anterior part with two distinctly delimited light spots.

The transversal fascia of the corium is irregular ("zigzag"), usually as in L. clypealis (for distinguishing, see the coloration of the pronotum and form of hind tibiae). The width of the fascia and intensity of its coloration varies greatly. Still, the light coloration is always present not only on veins but also on the surface of corium, and it does not have such straight edges as in L. phyllopus. Sometimes the fascia is reduced to a few oblique lines. The light spots of the pronotum can also be rather pale (and vary somewhat in size and shape) but always have a contrasting border. This character allows the unmistakable differentiation of L. zonatus from L. phyllopus when doubting the shape of the fascia on the corium.

Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852).

Length is 17-21 mm.

Distribution. The Southern United States from northern California to South Carolina. One of the most common species in Central and Northern South America.

Host plants. Polyphagous breeds and feeds on many plants, including cultivated plants (vegetables, fruits, ornamental plants, etc.).

Note. There is an old (most likely erroneous - see Baranowski & Slater, 1986) mention for Florida of a Caribbean species with similar coloration, Leptoglossus balteatus (Linnaeus, 1771). It differs from L. zonatus in the coloration of the pronotum. The spots in its anterior part are larger, triangular, widened in the posterior part toward its lateral margin; the posterior margin of the pronotum also has a yellow stripe.  The fascia of the corium is straight (as of L. phyllopus - see below).

Leptoglossus zonatus © jmmaes

Leptoglossus zonatus © Konstantin Grebennikov

Leptoglossus zonatus © Konstantin Grebennikov

Leptoglossus zonatus By Jesse Rorabaugh

Leptoglossus zonatus © beejay

Leptoglossus zonatus © Jacob Simon

Leptoglossus balteatus © Martin Reith

Leptoglossus zonatus

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus zonatus, hind tibia

© Konstantin Grebennikov, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus, narrow fascia

© Konstantin Grebennikov, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus, "usual" fascia

By Jesse Rorabaugh, CC 0

Leptoglossus zonatus, wide fascia

© beejay, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus zonatus, pale coloration

© Jacob Simon, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus balteatus

© Martin Reith, CC BY-NC

6a Corium always has a clearly visible, continuous transverse light fascia with a straight anterior and posterior margin. The width of this fascia varies, but it never forms a "zigzag" line as in L. zonatus. See also the differences of these species described above (5c).

Leptoglossus phyllopus (Linnaeus, 1767).

Note. Some L. phyllopus with the light anterior part of the pronotum are incredibly similar to L. zonatus with the broad fascia of the corium. There is even a particular project for such specimens: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/leptoglossus-phyllopus-with-distinct-pronotum-spots. Nevertheless, even in this case, the spots of the pronotum do not have a clear border. And the fascia is without sharp projections above and below.

Length is 17-20 mm.

Distribution. The Eastern United States, from New York to Texas (westward to approximately Illinois and Kansas). More western records need clarification. It is widely distributed in Central America (as far as Costa Rica).

A polyphagous species, breeding and feeding on various plants.

Leptoglossus phyllopus By Craig Martin

Leptoglossus phyllopus © wildcarrot

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Meghan Cassidy

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Brooke Smith

Leptoglossus phyllopus © Meghan Cassidy

Leptoglossus phyllopus

By Craig Martin CC 0

Leptoglossus phyllopus, hind tibia

© wildcarrot, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus phyllopus

© Meghan Cassidy, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus phyllopus with blurred light spots on the pronotum

© Brooke Smith, CC BY

Leptoglossus phyllopus with blurred light spots on the pronotum

© Meghan Cassidy, CC BY-SA

6b Corium without continuous straight transverse fascia: either completely monochromatic, small oblique light marks on veins, or irregular light fascia (as in L. zonatus). - 7

7a Corium is always monochromatic, without any light spots, stripes, or marks, or veins lighter than the background. Lateral corners of the pronotum strongly protrude, its margins serrate, and the surface has a rough granular structure. Middle and fore legs and antennae are contrastingly lighter than hind legs, almost monochromatically reddish-brown. Dilations of hind tibiae are slightly narrower and shorter than in all following species.

Leptoglossus fulvicornis (Westwood, 1842).

Length is 18-25 mm.

Distribution. Eastern North America from New York and southern Ontario to Texas (westward to Indiana and Arkansas). The range of the species almost coincides with the natural distribution of magnolias.

Host plants are magnolias (Magnolia spp.) only.

7b Corium has at least one oblique light mark in the middle, additional marks, or zigzag transverse fascia, or its veins are contrastingly lighter than the background.  Lateral corners of the pronotum are less projecting, rarely serrate (see below), and the surface is more smooth . The coloration of legs and antennae is less contrasting (at least the outer part of antennal segment 1 is brown). Dilations of the hind tibiae are slightly broader and longer.  -8

8a Veins of the corium are contrastingly lighter than the background, in the anterior part reddish, in posterior one yellowish. Corium doesn't have small light marks or fascia in its middle. Dilations of hind tibiae are narrower and shorter.

Leptoglossus jacquelinae Brailovsky, 1976. 

It's a little-known species that was described from Mexico (Monterrey, Nuevo-Leon). In October of 2018, one specimen was observed in Texas (San-Antonio) (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17392507). At the moment, it is difficult to give any additional information about this species.

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © keyojimbo

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © Mike Ostrowski

Leptoglossus fulvicornis © edgeelementary

Leptoglossus jaquelinae © Annie

Leptoglossus fulvicornis

© keyojimbo, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus fulvicornis, pronotum

© Mike Ostrowski, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus fulvicornis, hind tibia

© edgeelementary, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus jaquelinae

© Annie, CC BY-NC

8b Veins of the corium are of the same color as the background, except for the small oblique mark or irregular transversal fascia. Dilations of the hind tibiae are wider and longer. - 9

Note. The following three species are the most difficult to distinguish, especially from photographs. Often a clear image of the characters is needed, in some cases a bottom view with a clear image of the labium or information about the size of the specimen.

9a Corium usually has only one oblique light mark in the middle but may have 1 or even (rare) 2 additional pale marks, forming a semblance of indistinct fascia. Segment 1 of antennae unicolor, brown. Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is smooth.

Leptoglossus oppositus (Say, 1832).

Length is 18-20 mm.

Distribution. The eastern half of the USA (from New York, Michigan, and Nebraska to Florida, Texas, and Arizona), Mexico.

Probably the most polyphagous species. It breeds on plants in 15 families of gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and dicotyledons (Mitchell and Wheeler, 2008), and adults can feed on even more species.

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Annika Lindqvist

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus © Robert Webster

Leptoglossus oppositus

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus, head and 1st antennomere

© Annika Lindqvist, CC BY

Leptoglossus oppositus, hind tibia

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus, corium with additional mark

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus oppositus, corium with additional mark

© Robert Webster, CC BY-SA

9b Corium with more or less distinct zigzag transverse light fascia. Segment 1 of antennae bicolor: from the outer side dark (brown), from the inner one light (reddish-brown). - 10

10a Labium reaches only to the middle or hind part of the metasternum (not reaching the abdomen). Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is smooth or granulated. Smaller (12-14(?16) mm - one of the smallest species of the genus).

Leptoglossus brevirostris Barber, 1918

Distribution. The Southern United States from California to Texas, Mexico.

Host plants are poorly studied, information about them is inconsistent. Reliable data on the breeding of the species is available only for mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum (Whittaker, 1984). Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983) reported findings of this species on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). In “The Coreidae of Honduras” (Linares and Orozco, 2017), corn as a host plant is mentioned.

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris © jmmaes

Leptoglossus brevirostris: appearance, head and 1st antennomere, rostrum

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

10b Labium is beyond the hind margin of the metasternum. Posterolateral margin of the pronotum is serrate. Pronotum often with large blurred light spot in the center. Larger - unfortunately, I could not find exact information on the variability of size of this species. Walker's description indicates a size of "9 lines" - about 19 mm (I assume that in the British Museum's catalog of bugs specimens, the line corresponds to 1/12 of an inch). Since the species has been described from a single female (and males are usually slightly smaller), I assume that sizes may vary from (17?)18 to 20(21?) mm (as in L. oppositus).

Leptoglossus concolor (Walker, 1871)

Distribution. Previously, all reliable records from the United States referred to Florida. However, the modern distribution of the species needs to be clarified. The specimen that probably belongs to this species was collected in Arizona (https://bugguide.net/node/view/1451478). The species was first recorded from the United States by Hussey (1956) as Leptoglossus stigma (Herbst, 1784), although in the modern concept, this species occurs only in South America (Packauskas, 2010). Outside the United States, L. concolor is widespread in Central America and the Caribbean.

Host plants are poorly studied. Coccoloba uvifera, Gymnanthes lucida, Chiococca alba, Psidium guajava, Litchi chinensis, Bixa orellana, Anacardium occidentale have been mentioned.

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor © Sandra H Statner

Leptoglossus concolor

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, head and 1st antennomere

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, rostrum

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, pronotum with light spot

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Leptoglossus concolor, hind tibia

© Sandra H Statner, CC BY

Notes on species of the genus Leptoglossus occurring south of the USA.

Most of the 61 known species of the genus are distributed only in the tropics of Central and South America. And almost half of them (27) were described relatively recently, from 1969 (revision by Richard Charles Allen) to 2014 (revision by Harry Brailovsky). Generally, information about these species is highly scarce, including their distribution, variability, and biology. Moreover, there is no reason to think that all existing species of the genus have been described to date. Therefore, it seems to me so far impossible to compile an identification key such as the one presented above, even for Mexico only. But it will probably be helpful to list the species recorded from Mexico, indicating their features (as far as they are clear to me). It should be kept in mind that many little-known species described from Central America (from Panama to Guatemala) can also be found in Mexico, especially in the south (from Quintana Roo and Yucatan to Chiapas). There are currently seven such species. Six more are found in the Caribbean. The others are known only in South America. A review and key to identifying Mexican species (already somewhat outdated) were published by Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983).

There are nine species of the genus that aren't known in the U.S. but known at the moment in Mexico (three species from the U.S. - fulvicornis, ashmeadi, corculus aren't known in Mexico):

alatus group

Leptoglossus usingeri Yonke, 1981. A poorly studied species, described from Mexico State (Temascaltepec), was later found near the same place (Valle de Bravo). It is easily distinguished from other North American species by combining the pronotal lateral angle elongated into a sharp spine (as in L. gonagra) and coloration: pronotal disc with a broad transverse light stripe, corium with a straight transverse light fascia (as in L. phyllopus). Both anterolateral and posterolateral margins of the pronotum are serrate.

Holotype of L. usingeri: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187685&ImageID=179806

cinctus group

Leptoglossus cinctus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1836). This group of species (as well as the following one) is distinguished by the presence of light spots on the sides of the thorax. L. cinctus can be distinguished from other North American species by the combination of the coloration of the pronotum and corium. Almost all part of the pronotum (except pronotal margins) in front of lateral corners is of contrasting yellowish color. Corium with more or less developed straight transverse light fascia. The species is known in Mexico from Nayarit and southwards (to the south, it reaches Argentina).

lineosus group

Species of this Central American group are very easily distinguished by a specific bright pattern on elytra formed by light transverse fascia and contrastingly light (in relation to the background) veins.

Leptoglossus lineosus (Stål, 1862). It is distinguished from other species of the group by the combination of the lateral angle of elytra elongated into a sharp spine, narrow transverse light stripe on the pronotum, and smooth posterolateral margin of the pronotum. Northward it reaches Nayarit and San Luis Potosi. Southward it is reliably known to Oaxaca and Yucatan. Reported from Honduras (Linares and Orozco, 2017).

Leptoglossus talamancanus Brailovsky & Barrera, 1998. Similar to the previous species, the pronotum is without the transverse light stripe, and the antennae are more monochromatic. The species is described from Costa Rica, in 2020 reported from Mexico (van der Heyden).

Leptoglossus subauratus Distant, 1881. The transverse light stripe on the pronotum is much wider than that of L. lineosus. Its posterolateral margin is serrated.Known distribution is from Costa Rica to southern Mexico (Chiapas, Yucatan).

clypealis group

Leptoglossus crestalis Brailovsky and Barrera, 2004. A poorly studied species known only from Mexico (Veracruz) and Guatemala (Brailovsky and van der Heyden, 2019). Similar to L. occidentalis, it differs in the thickened monochromatic reddish 1st antennal segment, shorter and flattened pubescence of the pronotum, and broader relative to inner, outer dilatation of hind tibia.

Holotype of L. crestalis: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187679&ImageID=225578

dilaticollis group

Leptoglossus dilaticollis Guérin-Méneville, 1831. The species is closely related to L. fulvicornis, belonging to the same group, and probably also feeding on magnolias. It can be easily distinguished from all known species of the genus by unusually broadened lateral corners of the pronotum, which look like large rounded dentate lobes. Corium has a straight transverse light fascia. The distribution (and even presence) of this species in Mexico needs clarification. Allen (1969) mentions one male collected in Oaxaca. Brailovsky and Sánchez (1983) suggest that this species (like L. fulvicornis) is absent from Mexico (without commenting on Allen's indication). The species is also recorded from Panama and Brazil (Packauskas, 2010). There is a reliable observation in Colombia (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8090884).

stigma group

It’s the most numerous (20 species, about one-third of the variety of the genus) and the most taxonomically complex group.

Leptoglossus conspersus Stål, 1870. Very similar to L. zonatus, most reliably distinguished by the structure of the genitalia (Allen, 1969). The external differences are the larger lighter spots of the pronotum (occupying most of its disk) and the monochromatic dark 2nd segment of the antennae (in sharp contrast to the lighter parts of the 3rd and 4th segments). Recorded from San Luis Potosi and Jalisco and southwards (to South America).

Leptoglossus absconditus Brailovsky & Barrera, 2004. The species is known only from two specimens from Oaxaca (San Antonio Castilla). Very closely related to L. concolor and L. stigma (see Brailovsky, 2014 for details).

Holotype of L. absconditus: http://coreoidea.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowImage.aspx?TaxonNameID=1187716&ImageID=179476

Leptoglossus cinctus © Ísis Meri Medri

Leptoglossus lineosus © Juan Cruzado Cortés

Leptoglossus talamancanus © Emanuel Rodríguez

Leptoglossus subauratus © jmmaes

Leptoglossus dilaticollis © Matheus M. Santos

Leptoglossus conspersus © Joaquín Movia

Leptoglossus cinctus

© Ísis Meri Medri, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus lineosus

© Juan Cruzado Cortés, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus talamancanus

© Emanuel Rodríguez, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus subauratus

© jmmaes, CC BY-SA

Leptoglossus dilaticollis

© Matheus M. Santos, CC BY-NC

Leptoglossus conspersus

© Joaquín Movia, CC BY-NC

LITERATURE

Allen, R.C. 1969. A revision of the genus Leptoglossus Guérin (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Entomologia Americana, 45, 35–140. Available at: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/part/177213

Baranowski, R.M. & Slater, J.A. 1986. Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. Vol. 12. Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Florida, 82 pp. Available at: https://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000092/00001

Brailovsky, H. 2014. Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms, Zootaxa 3794 (1), pp. 143-178. Available at: https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CFDF4BDB2DD822FF16FA9DAFB5F99D

Brailovsky, H. 2016, The genus Anisoscelis Latreille (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini): new species, taxonomical arrangements, distributional records and key, Zootaxa 4144 (2), pp. 195-210 Available at: http://tb.plazi.org/GgServer/html/4C3687F47077CA30FF77D0A8FA6BF929

Brailovsky, H. & Barrera, E. 2013. New species of Narnia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Mexico and key to the known species of the genus, Zootaxa 3736 (3), pp. 285-290. Available at: https://treatment.plazi.org/id/7756305CFFDDFFF2FF0B0265FA0E9BFA

Brailovsky H., Sánchez C. 1983. Hemiptera-Heteroptera de México XXIX. Revisión de la familia Coreidae Leach. Parte 4. Tribu Anisoscelidini Amyot-Serville. Anales del Instituto de Biología. UNAM. Serie zoología, 53: 219-275.

Brailovsky,  H.  &  van  der  Heyden,  T.  2019. New  distributional  notes  and  key  to the  known  species  of Leptoglossus Guérin-Méneville from Guatemala (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini). Revista  Chilena  de  Entomología 45(1): 175-180. Available at: https://www.biotaxa.org/rce/article/view/48711/42165

Hussey R.F. 1953. Concerning some North American Coreidae (Hemiptera). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 48: 29-34. Available at: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/204896#page/375/mode/1up

Linares, C.A. and Orozco, J. 2017. The Coreidae of Honduras (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Biodiversity Data Journal, 5: 1-24. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.5.e13067.

McPherson, J.E.; Packauskas, R.J.; Taylor, S.J.; and O'Brien, M.F. 1990. Eastern range rxtension of Leptoglossus occidentalis With a key to Leptoglossus species of America North of Mexico (Heteroptera: Coreidae). The Great Lakes Entomologist, 23 (2). Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/tgle/vol23/iss2/5

Mitchell P.L. and A. G. Wheeler Jr. 2008. Host Plants of Leptoglossus oppositus (Say) (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 110(4): 1034-1041. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797-110.4.1034

Packauskas, R. 2010. Catalog of the Coreidae, or Leaf-Footed Bugs, of the New World. Fort Hays Studies, 4(5): 270 pp. Available at: https://scholars.fhsu.edu/fort_hays_studies_series/71/

Torre-Bueno, J. R. de la. 1941. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of America north of Mexico. Part II. Families Coreidae, Alydidae, Corizidae, Neididae, Pyrrhocoridae and Thaumastotheriidae. Entomologica Americana (New Series), 21:41-122. Available at: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/205451#page/55/mode/1up

van der Heyden, T. 2020. First records of Leptoglossus talamancanus Brailovsky & Barrera, 1998 (Hemiptera:Heteroptera: Coreidae) for Belize and Mexico. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 24(1): 45-46. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342109833_First_records_of_Leptoglossus_talamancanus_Brailovsky_Barrera_1998_Hemiptera_Heteroptera_Coreidae_for_Belize_and_Mexico

Wheeler A.G. Jr. 2018. Leptoglossus clypealis Heidemann (Hemiptera: Coreidae): Eastward Spread in North America, New Host Records, and Evaluation of Host Range. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 120(1): 196-210. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.120.1.196

Whittaker P.L. 1984. The insect fauna of mistletoe (Phoradendron tomentosum, Loranthaceae) in southern Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist, 29: 435‑444. https://doi.org/10.2307/3670996

Posted on November 26, 2021 11:31 by kgrebennikov kgrebennikov | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Senecio

Senecio
Senecio: involucre bracts: ONE series, long; with a few smaller outer (calyculus or epicalyx = resembling an extra calyx arising at the base of the calyx)) bracts below.

Senecio leptophyllus (fineleaf senecio)
Plant = willowy growth.
Flower woolly under, few heads – around 3 per branch/ discoid. Bracts with dark point.
Small linear slight woolly leaf , with 2/4 smaller leaves – axillary tufts.
Leafy below – leaves may be eared below.
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/11303781
Seen nvB Zebrafontein

Senecio pinifolius Pineleaf Ragwort
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/73757014#data_quality_assessment

Posted on November 26, 2021 07:53 by evieb evieb | 1 observation | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Athanasia

ATHANASIA

Athanasia linifolia

Tall plants (>0.6m); few, large urceolate (urn shaped) heads with broad bracts with darker central portion; long leafed garden route form

Heads look too big and urceolate, and bracts wrong for filiformis - more like linifolia.

Athanasia filiformis

Athanasia viridis

Posted on November 26, 2021 07:46 by evieb evieb | 1 observation | 0 comments | Leave a comment

November Monthly Winners

Here we are, the end of the Race. Bittersweet indeed! It’s been tough for our Panel of Judges going through a large number of observations that have been submitted within the last 19 days, but the quality of competing images has been truly remarkable. 

On behalf of the Judges, we are happy to announce the winners for November. Congratulations to all participants who fought until the end. Regardless of the results, all of you are champions!

Bravo and Well Done to the Winners, for their outstanding submissions for Best Photo and for the Most Number of Species observed in November.

Best Photos of the Month:

Kalophrynus heterochirus
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100216334 by @bruce_teo

Rhacophorus pardalis
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100361679 by @birdtan

Ingerophrynus divergens by @ngjiajie
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101468307

Feihyla kajau (eggs) by @birdtan
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100695655

Microhyla nepenthicola
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100758941 by @bruce_teo

Honorable Mentions:
The following images received honorable mention by our judges:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101468123 by @ngjiajie
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101441490 by @bruce_teo
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100309418 by @bruce_teo
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101441977 by @bruce_teo
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100586677 by @bobzakaria
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100771172 by @birdtan
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101452229 by @birdtan
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101452234 by @birdtan
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101452232 by @birdtan
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100360839 by @birdtan

The Most Number of Species:
For the month of November, the top amphibian counters were:

@palumie - 34 species
@pylon - 33 species
@zizan - 31 species
@rostamachong - 25 species
@chunxingwong - 23 species

Stay tuned for the announcement on the Grand Prizes, to be awarded during the Closing Ceremony! 

Posted on November 26, 2021 07:30 by cclborneo cclborneo | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Five remarkable photos of giraffes

(writing in progress)

The following initially drew my attention because it shows the pedal flag in Giraffa tippelskirchi. Then I noticed the mother plus three juvenile individuals of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the foreground, their spotted coats blending in so well that they virtually hide in plain sight. This photo nicely illustrates the analogy between giraffes and big cats in camouflage colouration, and the exceptional body size of giraffes as camouflaged megafauna. It also illustrates the phenomenon of flagging in otherwise inconspicuous animals. The pedal flag of this species of giraffe is easy enough to spot once one has a search-image, but note that the cheetah too has a flag: the white-and-black tail-tip (a caudal flag) visible on one individual.

The individuals of G. tippelskirchi are all males, ranging from juvenile to adult, which can be told by not only their genitalia but also the size and form of their horns.

Body mass is about 45 kg for the adult female cheetah and about 500-1000 kg for these individuals of G. tippelskirchi.

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffes-looking-at-cheetahs-gm532700725-56175692

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffe-gm1257170721-368333347

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-tippelskirchi-masai-mara-park-in-kenya-gm1262783396-369525685 and https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffes-fighting-gm1191233110-337981747 and https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffes-fighting-gm1191233151-337981921

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-girafffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-tippelskirchi-drinking-masai-mara-park-in-kenya-gm1256988943-368223297

https://www.naturepl.com/stock-photo-eland-tragolaphus-oryx--females-and-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-nature-image01668932.html

https://www.gettyimages.ie/detail/photo/highland-eland-grazing-along-with-giraffe-in-the-royalty-free-image/1127579168?adppopup=true

https://depositphotos.com/249627558/stock-photo-vertical-photo-huge-eland-antelope.html

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffes-in-desert-habitat-gm873114432-243844351

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffe-walking-on-the-plains-of-the-masai-mara-national-park-gm1277799866-376914862

https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/wildlife-in-africa-gm180445872-25087728

(writing in progress)

Posted on November 26, 2021 07:03 by milewski milewski | 6 comments | Leave a comment

Текущий статус выполнения домашнего задания №5 (26.11.2021)

Уважаемые слушатели!

Это текущий статус выполнения пятого домашнего задания (идентификации) с помощью автоматических инструментов (на 17:35 MSK 26 ноября). Текст домашнего задания: https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/57871-domashnee-zadanie-5-identifikatsii

Всем, кто упомянут в этом посте домашнее задание №5 зачтено. Вопрос преподавателю можно задать в комментариях к этому посту.


Сделали необходимое число верных определений (100 и более) и заполнили гуглоформу: 19 человек.

@vlasov_alexandr
@maria_kovalenko
@vladislav_orekhov
@alexandra_shatunina
@dmitry_tikhonov
@xinyi_he
@mikhail_buzoverov
@tikhon_pshenitsyn
@pavel_bogomazov
@dorofeeva_margarita
@olga_koniaeva
@valeriia_milkina
@nikita_krupenikov
@sofiazhukova
@julia_vaysman
@anya_malchenkova
@glushkov_egor
@annalyamina
@polina_shipilova


Короткий чеклист перед лекцией №9 (состоится 01.12.2021).

Обязательное:

  • у вас должно быть корректно выполнено домашнее задание №1 (регистрация), замечания исправлены;
  • у вас должно быть выполнено домашнее задание №2 (тест по GBIF), при попадании в списки неверно ответивших, нужно послать ответ еще раз;
  • у вас должно быть выполнено домашнее задание №3 (освоение модуля массовой загрузки), если оно не выполнено, то его нужно выполнить вместе с домашним заданием №4;
  • у вас должно быть выполнено домашнее задание №4 (полевые наблюдения за пределами МКАД, минимум 5 штук) - опоздавшие делают задания №3 и №4 не обращая внимания на прописанные дедлайны;
  • вы должны найти себя в списке слушателей курса и проверить свою запись на корректность: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g/journal/58670-spisok-slushateley-kursa.

Желательное:


На выходные обещают небольшое потепление - будет возможность закрыть домашние задания №3 и №4 для отстающих.


Все ссылки на полезные ресурсы тут:

https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/kiber-mfk-mgu-osen-2021-g?tab=about


Posted on November 26, 2021 04:23 by apseregin apseregin | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Berry Springs Preserve Herps of Texas report, 24Nov2021

Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there was no group outing to Berry Springs Park and Preserve this month. However, one person checked on the amphibians while texting a local fellow frogger upon arrival and departure (for safety) - the county had at least shifted from the Red Phase to the Orange Phase of COVID-19 transmission.
Three amphibian species were observed in the middle slough springhead, slough by the playground, the main ponds, the ditch in the pecan orchard, and the park road near the pay station: Rio Grande Leopard Frog (CI = 0), American Bullfrog (CI = 0), and Gulf Coast Toad (CI = 0). Photos were obtained for all three species.
A Nutria was seen in the main pond after sunset.
The puddle at the middle slough springhead was larger than last month but not flowing to the main pond, and the water level was average in the slough by the playground and main ponds. According to the USGS gauge station at Berry Creek at Airport Rd near Georgetown, TX (https://waterdata.usgs.gov/tx/nwis/uv/?site_no=08105095&PARAmeter_cd=00045), there had not been any rain for three weeks.
The monitoring period was 17:30 - 18:45.
The author of this journal post was the only participant.
Environmental conditions at the middle slough springhead at sunset:
Air temperature = 72.5 deg F
Water temperature = 68.2 deg F
Sky = mostly cloudy
Water level = below average at springhead and average at main ponds
Relative humidity = 55 %

Posted on November 26, 2021 00:42 by k_mccormack k_mccormack | 5 observations | 0 comments | Leave a comment

The mystery of megafaunal microcamouflage

Everyone knows that giraffes and big cats are spotted, and zebras are striped.

And most would agree that these patterns function as camouflage in at least a loose sense.

However, how many have noticed that the disruptive markings in giraffes include spotting/striping too small-scale to make sense as camouflage?

The dark blotches/spots on the pelage of giraffes range in diameter from tens of centimetres to mere millimetres, despite the likelihood that both sizes will be viewed from similar distances by potential predators (https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffe-gm900610478-248476170 and https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/baby-masai-giraffe-stands-near-thorn-trees-gm1163986460-319800417).

Under which circumstances could it possibly be true that the tiny spots - which are visible only at close range - on the forehead, temples and/or crown help giraffes to hide?

Forehead of adult female Giraffa tippelskirchi:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffe-in-kennya-on-safari-africa-gm1354464097-429280909
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffe-in-kennya-on-safari-africa-gm1354465295-429280938
https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/africa-african-animal-background-beautiful-big-brindled-brown-camouflage-close-up-culture-cute-ear-face-fun-funny-giraffa-giraffe-head/ZON-8453742
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/curious-giraffe-portrait-on-the-savannah-gm1128231346-297651521
https://pixels.com/featured/close-up-of-a-maasai-giraffes-eyes-panoramic-images.html
https://www.shutterstock.com/nb/image-photo/wild-giraffe-close-head-shot-chewing-2037362243

Temples and crown of mature male Giraffa tippelskirchi:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffe-gm1310309401-399758914

Temples of adolescent male Giraffa tippelskirchi:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/masai-giraffe-gm467510293-34473716

Temples and crown of infant Giraffa tippelskirchi:
https://www.agefotostock.com/age/en/details-photo/close-up-of-a-masai-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-tippelskirchi-also-known-as-the-maasai-giraffe-or-kilimanjaro-giraffe/X5T-2549599

Temples and crown of mature male Giraffa camelopardalis:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffe-eating-grass-giraffe-head-green-trees-in-the-background-gm1339433342-419773508

Forehead of mature female Giraffa camelopardalis:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/contented-giraffe-gm115789869-4253424

Forehead and temples of Giraffa reticulata:
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/a-reticulated-giraffe-gm805665456-130614787

In zebras, the striping on the forehead and temples is smaller-scale than that on the neck. However, the disparity is not as great and the fine-grained pattern is not as anatomically localised as in giraffes:
https://www.worldanimalfoundation.org/animal_encyclopedia/params/category/173341/item/994138/#gallery
https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-close-up-side-view-of-zebra-face-147513723.html
https://www.alamy.com/african-animal-lion-zebra-wildebeest-elephant-calves-giraffe-birds-stars-sunset-sunrise-image241375085.html
https://www.alamy.com/african-animal-lion-zebra-wildebeest-elephant-calves-giraffe-birds-stars-sunset-sunrise-image241395544.html

In big cats there is no particular disparity, because the spots are all of the same order of magnitude:

Panthera onca:
https://image.shutterstock.com/shutterstock/photos/53686768/display_1500/stock-photo-close-up-portrait-of-jaguar-panthera-onca-53686768.jpg
https://www.jacadatravel.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/pantanal-jaguar-1024x576.jpg

Panthera pardus:
https://pxhere.com/en/photo/617310
https://s2.best-wallpaper.net/wallpaper/1280x1024/1209/Leopard-face-HD-close-up_1280x1024.jpgi

Panthera uncia:
https://i.ebayimg.com/images/i/400990455879-0-1/s-l1000.jpg
https://images.freeimages.com/images/large-previews/da0/close-up-of-snow-leopard-1243841.jpg

Panthera tigris:
https://www.australiazoo.com.au/wildlife/our-animals/sumatran-tiger/
https://image.freepik.com/free-photo/close-up-tiger-s-face_58995-594.jpg
https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/close-up-tiger-s-face-25875004.jpg

One possible explanation is that the micro-spotting on the heads of giraffes functions not for camouflage but for individual recognition. This is not necessarily undermined by the fact that most individuals lack spotting on the forehead (https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffe-at-tarangire-national-park-tanzania-africa-gm619525138-108056915 and https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/giraffe-mikumi-national-park-tanzania-gm1177849689-328971616), temples and crown.

This explanation would be in line with the general tendency for antelopes to be most individually variable in their colouration on the face, particularly the forehead (e.g. https://kith.co/blog/fear-in-crisis/). However, it is undermined by the observations that gregariousness in giraffes tends to be promiscuous, bonds among individuals seem to be weak, and the form of the horns and horn-tufts would seem sufficient for individual recognition.

Posted on November 25, 2021 22:41 by milewski milewski | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Identification of the major groups within Platycheirus (males)

The taxonomy of Platycheirus on iNat has recently had a bit of a sort out. The result is the use of the generic/subgeneric framework established by Mengual (2020), and within that the Species groups suggested by Vockeroth and developed by Young, Marshall and Skevington. These Groups are called 'Sections' in iNat, because that is the rank that is available. Within the albimanus Section are the complexes scutatus and clypeatus. So it looks like this:

Genus Pyrophaena (aka granditarsis Group) Holarctic
Genus Eocheilosia New Zealand
Genus Platycheirus Holarctic,Neotropical
Subgenus Tuberculanostoma (formerly a distinct Genus) Neotropical
Subgenus Pachysphyria (aka ambiguus Group) Holarctic
Subgenus Carposcalis (aka stegnus Group) New World
Subgenus Platycheirus Holarctic
Section manicatus Holarctic
Section peltatus Holarctic
Section chilosia Holarctic
Section pictipes Nearctic
Section albimanus Holarctic
Complex clypeatus Holarctic
Complex scutatus Holarctic
Not in a complex Holarctic

(European identifiers in particular should note that the definition of 'Section albimanus' used here still conflicts with the definition sometimes used in Europe i.e. those species with white maculae - as it did before. White spots species are spread through the groups. In the UK for example 4 species are considered albimanus Group in this 'white spots' sense: ambiguus is in Subgenus Pachysphyria, discimanus is in Section manicatus, but the other two (albiimanus + sticticus) are in Section albimanus. This is why the concept cannot be implemented in iNat - the taxa have different parents.)

The morphological delineation of the groups within the genus Platycheirus goes primarily with the modifications of the male foreleg. Here is an attempt at a key to the groups on that basis, largely based on Skevington:

1. a. At least some segments of the male foreleg modified in shape.
b. Male foreleg modified only by the presence of ornamental setae, if at all.
2
4
2. a. Male foretibia unmodified in shape (only tarsi expanded).
b. Male foretibia modified in shape.
Section manicatus
3
3. a. Male foretibia broadening gradually throughout its length.
b. Male foretibia broadened distinctly at the apex only.
Section albimanus
Section peltatus
4. a. Face extended well forwards into a prominent pointed snout, but hardly downwards, and with a prominent tubercle, Males dichoptic.
b. Face not extended forwards into a snout. Males holoptic.
Subgenus Tuberculanostoma
5
5. a. Male forefemur with long curled bristle at the apex.
b. Male forefemur without such a bristle.
Subgenus Pachysphyria
6
6. a. Long curled setae on male forebasitarsi.
b. Without long curled setae on male forebasitarsi.
Section chilosia
7
7. a. Male foretibia without ornamental setae (i.e. leg unmodified).
b. Male foretibia with long posterior setae.
Section pictipes
Subgenus Carposcalis

Posted on November 25, 2021 22:25 by matthewvosper matthewvosper | 0 comments | Leave a comment

252-Jaar vd Otter in Duitsland, Nederland en België webinar 'De otter verlegt grenzen'

Kom in dit Jaar van de Otter in Duitsland, Nederland en België naar het grensoverschrijdend otterwebinar 'De otter verlegt grenzen' op 25 november.
Hierin wordt jij door otterspecialisten van Nedersaksen, Nordrhein Westfalen, Nederland, Vlaanderen en Wallonië voorzien van de laatste informatie over de verspreiding van de otter in die regio's, en geven zij voorbeelden van maatregelen die zijn genomen voor de otter. We hopen dat wij elkaar inspireren om maatregelen te nemen voor deze ambassadeur van de waternatuur!
Het is speciaal georganiseerd voor professionals en betrokken vrijwilligers van overheden en natuurorganisaties, maar staat open voor iedereen, stuur gerust deze uitnodiging door. Er is geen maximum aan het aantal deelnemers.
Het webinar is in het Engels en vindt plaats op Youtube op 25 november 2021 van 14.30u tot 16.15u.
Ga hiervoor naar https://www.youtube.com/calutra.
Het is niet nodig om je aan te melden.

  1. Jaar vd Otter in Duitsland, Nederland en België webinar 'De otter verlegt grenzen'

    Jaar vd Otter in Duitsland, Nederland en België webinar 'De otter verlegt grenzen'
    Doe mee en stel je vragen in de chat, in Engels, Nederlands, Duits of Frans.
    Met presentaties van:
    Nedersaksen: Friederike Schröder, Otterzentrum Hankensbüttel
    Nordrhein-Westfalen: Sebastian Wantia, Naturschutzzentrum Kleve
    Nederland: Vilmar Dijkstra en Ellen van Norren, Zoogdiervereniging
    Vlaanderen: Céline de Caluwé, WWF België
    Wallonië: Corentin Rousseau, WWF België
    https://www.flevolandsgeheugen.nl/page/7804/waarom-werd-het-plan-van-van-eesteren-voor-lelystad-verworpen

  2. https://www.hunebednieuwscafe.nl/2021/10/lezing-de-eeuwige-oceaan-bakermat-van-het-leven/
    Er volgen nog 4 lezingen in de serie ‘waterplaneet aarde’ met de volgende onderwerpen
    Antarctica; geologie en klimaat Zuidpoolgebied- vriezen en dooien
    zondag 14 november 2021; Spreker Dr. Peter Bijl, UU
    Arctica; de gevolgen van het verdwijnen van ijs
    zondag 12 december 2021; Spreker Dr. Maarten Loonen, RUG
    Rivieren; Waterhuishouding in Nederland
    zondag 16 januari 2022; Spreker Drs. Pol Hakstege
    Zeespiegelstijging; complexiteit, dynamiek en onzekerheden
    https://www.hunebednieuwscafe.nl/2021/10/lezing-de-eeuwige-oceaan-bakermat-van-het-leven/
    zondag 13 februari 2022; Spreker Prof. Roderik van de Wal , UU

  3. Merel Soons
    https://www.sg.uu.nl/video/2019/10/wat-de-natuur-ons-waard

    De biodiversiteit gaat in rap tempo achteruit. Hoe serieus zijn we over het behoud van de natuur? Wat houdt ons tegen effectieve maatregelen te treffen? Met bioloog prof. dr. Merel Soons (UU), ecoloog en filosoof prof. dr. Matthijs Schouten (WUR/Staatsbosbeheer) en milieukundige prof. dr. Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers (RU).

  4. tel je een dag op het strand voor. De zon, de zee, het zand… Maar als je denkt dat het strand altijd hetzelfde is, dan heb je het mis. Stranden veranderen constant van vorm en formaat door de toe- en afvoer van zand. Timothy Price (Utrecht University) legt uit waarom stranden zo belangrijk zijn en hoe ze door de stijgende zeespiegel bedreigd kunnen worden. Na dit college kijk je nooit meer hetzelfde naar het strand!

    Dit college is onderdeel van The University of the Netherlands en wordt gegeven in het Engels. Zie je geen ondertiteling? Klik dan rechtsonder in de video op instellingen en zet de ondertiteling aan.

    Gaat niet zo goed met de jongeren in VK: hIk was onder de indruk van het onderdeel 'Verenigd Koninkrijk'' https://www.npostart.nl/how-to-be-young/KN_1726127
    https://www.npo3.nl/waarom-werken-vrouwen-niet/KN_1717390
    https://nietbangvoorwater.info/zuid-holland-watersnood/
    https://www.arte.tv/de/videos/104814-000-A/wild-im-westen/
    https://app.nlziet.nl/live/sbs9
    https://livetv.canaldigitaal.nl/?assetId=b8gnog0dq_vwvdBkQH1KISTaIaTeMH5l24XoUO_s&autoplay=true
    https://app.nlziet.nl/live/sbs9
    https://www.zonerama.com/TheoHeijmans/Album/5098659
    https://www.zonerama.com/TheoHeijmans/ NJN Technische fotos planten Flickr
    https://stinzenflora-monitor.nl/
    https://www.nhnieuws.nl/nieuws/293909/vrouwen-jarenlang-in-ongewisse-door-onverklaarbare-klachten-meer-onderzoek-nodig%20
    https://www.vpro.nl/programmas/geen-kleine-man.html

  5. e been using https://www.gpsvisualizer.com/convert_input 4 to convert the files to gpx, and that usually works fairly well
    https://forum.inaturalist.org/t/geotagging-photos/66/20
    r, as described by iPhil. darktable exports really slowly, even just for adding the GPS locations, as cmcheatle said.
    https://geosetter.de/en/main-en/
    https://forum.inaturalist.org/t/geotagging-photos/66/20
    Unfortunately I recently switched from Windows to Ubuntu and GeoSetter is only for Windows. It’s been frustrating trying to find a replacement for it (and other programs I use for photo processing). Geotag 2 is the most popular s
    ith the free GPXLogger app on an android phone
    https://sourceforge.net/projects/gpicsync/
    to be a free app for Windows PC called GPicSync 17 which Geotaged my photos

    I Selected GPX file (that I emailed to myself) than selected the Picture folder, than synchronise. After it’s completed it also created a Google Earth kml file which can be opened in the desktop version of

  6. Thanks for mentioning Easy GPS Logger. I used it for the first time yesterday and it worked great… very easy to use and it didn’t drain the battery much at all. I’d also installed GPS Essentials, but found that one had too much going on for a total geotagging newbie to just fire it up and start using it right away.

    I also installed GeoSetter on my computer to put the GPS data into the photo metadata after verifying the timestamps were in sync. That was a little less simple to just start using right away since that program has lots of options and isn’t as newbie friendly. I figured it out with some Googling though.

    Once I uploaded the photos to iNat, I realized that the coordinates were correct, but that there wasn’t anything in the accuracy field. The file created by Easy GPS Logger does have an accuracy value for each track point, and those values ranged from 3-14 meters for this trip. So I manually selected the photos in iNat and did a batch edit to set the accuracy for all the observations to 10m.
    https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/geralda/27237-how-to-add-gps-tags-to-images-with-exiftool

  7. Webinar Historische ecologie van de NL landschappen; Akkerlandschappen (deel VI)
    Zesde in een reeks lezingen die de Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (RCE) en het Kenniscentrum Landschap van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RUG) dit jaar organiseren. Tijdens acht middagen met steeds drie presentaties maken we voor tal van Nederlandse landschapstypen en ecosystemen de balans op van de stand van het historisch-landschapsecologisch onderzoek. Ook bekijken we welke mogelijkheden deze aanpak biedt voor beleid, inrichting en beheer.

    Aanleiding
    Door het grootschalige en heel uniforme karakter van de tegenwoordige akkerlandschappen, zou je bijna vergeten dat deze landschappen in het verleden uiterst divers waren. Verschillen in ondergrond, gewasteelt, grondbewerkingsmethoden en bemestingsintensiteit zorgden voor heel gevarieerde akkergebieden met een rijke akkerflora en -fauna. Al vanaf het vijfde millennium voor Christus vindt in onze streken akkerbouw plaats.
    Archeologen paleobotanici hebben de afgelopen decennia veel geleerd over de prehistorische akkerbouw, onder meer van de Celtic fields en de akkers in het terpenlandschap. Maar ook over de essen in onze zandgebieden is veel nieuwe cultuurhistorische en ecologische kennis ontwikkeld. In het webinar vertellen vier onderzoekers over de historisch-ecologische rijkdom van vroegere akkerlandschappen. Belangrijk doel is ook om na te gaan welke relevantie deze kennis heeft voor het herstel van de biodiversiteit op toekomstige akkers.

    13.40 Prehistorische mens-omgeving interactie op en rond de akker: over wallen, mest en ploegen door Stijn Arnoldussen & Mans Schepers (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen)
    14.15 Hoe natuurlijk zijn wilde planten op akkers? door Jan Bakker (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen)
    14.50 Korte pauze
    15.00 Historisch-ecologische diversiteit van de middeleeuwse essen in Drenthe door Theo Spek (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen)
    15.40 Slotdiscussie onder leiding van Otto Brinkkemper (RCE)

    -- Webinar Historische ecologie van de NL landschappen; Akkerlandschappen (deel VI) (royalcast.com)

  8. NHGL-lezingen in 2022:
    6 januari: Vuursteenmijnen in Rijckholt door Joep Orbons
    3 maart:
    7 april:
    5 mei: wilde bijen in Lanaken door Ward Tamsyn
    2 juni: excursie in de Lage Fronten door Gijs Ketelaers
    7 juli: excursie Natuurgluren in het Stadspark door Rob Janssen
    4 augustus: excursie in Asbroek door Bart Hoelbeek
    1 september:
    6 oktober:
    3 november:
    1 december: Korstmossen op beton door Max Klasberg

  9. Bijeenkomst 2 Heidevelden en stuifzanden: donderdag 25 maart
    Bijeenkomst 3 Rivierengebied: donderdag 22 april
    Bijeenkomst 4 Veenmoerassen: donderdag 27 mei
    Bijeenkomst 5 Beekdalen: donderdag 24 juni
    Bijeenkomst 6 Historische akkers: 23 september
    Bijeenkomst 7 Duinen: 28 oktober
    Bijeenkomst 8 Waddengebied: 25 november

  10. Campus College Dr Tim van Zutphen: Naar een gezonde leefomgeving voor en door bewoners in Leeuwarden

    Campus College Dr Tim van Zutphen: Naar een gezonde leefomgeving voor en door bewoners in Leeuwarden

  11. https://channel.royalcast.com/cultureelerfgoed/#!/cultureelerfgoed/20211125_1
    Achtste in een reeks lezingen die de Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (RCE) en het Kenniscentrum Landschap van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RUG) dit jaar organiseren. Tijdens acht middagen met steeds drie presentaties maken we voor tal van Nederlandse landschapstypen en ecosystemen de balans op van de stand van het historisch-landschapsecologisch onderzoek. Ook bekijken we welke mogelijkheden deze aanpak biedt voor beleid, inrichting en beheer.

    Aanleiding
    Alle landschappen en ecosystemen in ons land zijn ontstaan door een langdurige wisselwerking tussen aarde, natuur en mens. Wie de opbouw en ontstaanswijze van een landschap wil begrijpen, dient daarvoor vakgebieden als aardwetenschappen, ecologie en cultuurhistorie met elkaar te verbinden. De laatste jaren is er steeds meer belangstelling voor een dergelijke interdisciplinaire aanpak, waarbij ook de contouren opdoemen van een nieuw integraal vakgebied: de historische landschapsecologie. Hoe ziet dit soort onderzoek er eigenlijk uit? Welke methoden zijn hiervoor beschikbaar? Welke resultaten zijn hier tot dusverre mee geboekt? En wat zijn de belangrijkste wetenschappelijke uitdagingen voor de komende jaren?

    In de praktijk zien we dat natuur- en landschapsbeheer, waterbeheer en erfgoedzorg steeds intensiever met elkaar worden verbonden. Verouderde sectorale benaderingen worden ingeruild voor een nieuwe vorm van integraal terreinbeheer, waarin natuurwaarden, erfgoedwaarden en aardkundige waarden in samenhang met elkaar worden beschermd en beheerd. Wat betekent dit voor inrichting en beheer van terreinen? Welk vooronderzoek is precies nodig? Hoe kan dit worden omgezet in meer integrale inrichtings- en beheervormen? Welke projecten kunnen hierbij tot voorbeeld dienen? En welke uitdagingen liggen er de komende jaren in de verschillende landschappen en ecosystemen?
    https://channel.royalcast.com/cultureelerfgoed/#!/cultureelerfgoed/20211125_1

  12. De eerste lezing in het programma is:
    Water op Aarde: het ontstaan, voorkomen-vast en vloeibaar, oceanen, etc.
    zondag 10 oktober 2021 spreker Dr. Tom Reijers.
    De aarde werd in de Hadeïsche (=Helse) periode van de aardgeschiedenis gevormd. Toen de temperatuur tot onder 100° C was gedaald, begon een miljoenen jaren durende regenval die de laag gelegen delen van de aardkorst vulde met water. Het water was deels ontstaan uit mineralen- en gesteenten reacties deels werd het als ijs door meteorieten uit de ruimte aangevoerd. Het vulde de lage delen van de nieuw gevormde aardkorst.

    Oceanen ontstonden in het levenloze Azoïcum. In het Proterozoïcum (= dageraad van het leven) was de oceaan de baarmoeder van het eerste primitieve leven: cyanobacterie (blauwgroene) cellen. Die stootten zuurstof uit dat zich verbond met daartoe geschikte mineralen zoals ijzer. De aarde ‘verroestte’. Daarna bereikte uitgestoten zuurstof de bovenste lagen van de atmosfeer waar het, onder invloed van ultraviolette zonnestraling, reageerde als 3O2→ 2O3. Ozon ontstond en beschermde het leven tegen die ultraviolette straling. Pas daarna werd vrije zuurstof in de atmosfeer opgeslagen.

    Het anoxigene leven moest zich ingrijpend aanpassen. Er ontstonden complexe cellen en meercellige planten en dieren binnen drie levensdomeinen. We zijn in het Fanerozoïcum beland, het tijdvak van leven met duidelijk zichtbare resten; het leven overal om ons heen en uiteindelijk ook Homo sapiens. Gemeten in biomassa, vergeleken met andere levensresten door de hele aardgeschiedenis, is Homo sapiens slechts een fragiels, late, vluchtige en totaal ondergeschikte bezoeker van planeet aarde. De oceanen en landmassa’s veranderden door de tijd. Het leven evolueerde met een verbazende continuïteit. Toch werd het voortgaan van het leven onderbroken door een aantal wereldwijde ijstijden en zes massa uitstervingsfasen in het Fanerozoïcum, waarvan Homo sapiens in belangrijke mate de laatste veroorzaakt.

  13. https://www.hunebedcentrum.eu/events/lezing-water-op-aarde-het-ontstaan-voorkomen-vast-en-vloeibaar-oceanen-etc/
    Antartica; geologie en klimaat Zuidpoolgebied- vriezen en dooien
    zondag 14 november 2021; Spreker Dr. Peter Bijl, UU
    Artica; de gevolgen van het verdwijnen van ijs
    zondag 12 december 2021; Spreker Dr. Maarten Loonen, RUG
    Rivieren; Waterhuishouding in Nederland
    zondag 16 januari 2022; Spreker Drs. Pol Hakstege
    Zeespiegelstijging; complexiteit, dynamiek en onzekerheden
    zondag 13 februari 2022; Spreker Prof. Roderik van de Wal , UU
    https://www.hunebedcentrum.eu/events/lezing-water-op-aarde-het-ontstaan-voorkomen-vast-en-vloeibaar-oceanen-etc/

  14. Aansluiting muur-dak vaak een zwak punt
    Het is allemaal geen raketwetenschap, erkent Dick, maar het werkt wél. Op zolder ziet het oog van de bouwkundige nog iets waar een leek niet direct aan zou denken. "De aansluiting tussen de zolderverdieping en het dak is vaak lek en daarom een plek waar veel tocht doorheen komt. Dat was ook in ons huis. Met purschuim en isolatiemateriaal heb ik dat gedicht. Een wandje ervoor timmeren en het ziet er nu prima uit." Dick bedoelt, in lekentaal gesteld, normaal gesproken het punt waar de 'rechte' muur op zolder overgaat in het schuine dak. Soms is het wel even zoeken om dat punt te vinden.

    Het dak is trouwens wel een kritiek punt bij veel woningen, zegt Dick op basis van zijn decennialange ervaring. "Daar verdwijnt veel warmte door slechte isolatie of kieren." Overigens moet een huis niet hélemaal potdicht worden gemaakt. "Vergeet de ventilatie niet voor een gezond klimaat in huis. Maar dat kan met ventilatieroosters."
    https://www.rijnmond.nl/nieuws/1428820/Dick-70-perfectioneert-de-isolatie-van-zijn-huis-en-betaalt-19-euro-per-maand-aan-energie
    Dubbelglas, zonnepanelen, bodem- en vloerisolatie.. Je mag dan wel besparen, maar het kost aanvankelijk wel allemaal serieus geld. "Ja, dat is zo", erkent Dick. "Maar wij hebben om de paar jaar iets laten doen. Dan is het beter behapbaar. En sommige dingen kun je dus echt zelf. Dat scheelt ook. Ik denk dat we er over een periode van 25 jaar in totaal 25.000 euro in hebben gestoken. Ik vermoed dat ik nu maandelijks minstens honderd euro bespaar. Dat is per jaar 1200 euro. En dan heb je een comfortabel huis en stijgt ook de waarde van je woning enorm. Het is het echt meer dan waard geweest."
    https://www.rijnmond.nl/nieuws/1428820/Dick-70-perfectioneert-de-isolatie-van-zijn-huis-en-betaalt-19-euro-per-maand-aan-energie

    te. "Uiteindelijk kreeg ik de baas van het bedrijf te pakken via LinkedIn en toen heeft hij zijn 'beste medewerker' gestuurd om het af te ronden. Hij kwam op een zaterdag, de dag voordat hij op vakantie zou gaan."

    https://twitter.com/BaarsDaniel/status/1454183585427099652
    https://twitter.com/larsboelen/status/1440213362789404679

    https://twitter.com/BaarsDaniel/status/1454183585427099652
    zijn de gemetselde spouwmuren maar deels geïsoleerd. "De gemetselde gevelmuur heeft een spouw van maar 6 cm. Daar zit al ongeveer 4 cm steenwol isolatie in vanuit de originele bouw in 1983. De overige 2 cm opvullen levert niet zoveel extra isolatiewaarde op. In de huidige nieuwbouwwoningen is deze spouw 16 cm met wel 12 cm isolatie. Dat is natuurlijk veel beter." Kortom, bij voldoende ruimte tussen twee lagen muur kan het zeker wel zin hebben om te isoleren.

    Sommige ketels@werken op een thermostaat, andere met een stooklijn. Een warmtepomp bijvoorbeeld. Hoe je een stooklijn goed instelt is mij ook nog een raadsel, kan er geen info over vinden.
    Uit onderzoek blijkt dat 50 graden en hoger bij kleine circuits (individuele woningen) al voldoende is om legionella te voorkomen.
    Een groter gevaar is de zomer, als het water niet koud genoeg is en boven de 20 graden komt. De koudwaterkraan dus.

    https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorgona_(Colombia)
    schaffen dividendbelasting ging Nederland trouwens 1,4 tot 2,0 miljard euro kosten, met het risico dat ze op den duur alsnog waren vertrokken. Dat is natuurlijk nog los van de principiële vraag of je je als land wilt laten chanteren door bedrijven.
    Beste Simon, We brengen onze fiscale thuisbasis, nu nog in Nederland, over naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Alleen de CEO en CFO vertrekken naar Londen, samen met minder dan tien (senior) executives. 1/3
    nog onduidelijk. Ik kijk vanuit het perspectief van de energietransitie erheen. De banen en locaties die er nu zijn zullen niet plots verdwijnen. Het gevaar zit hem meer bij de toekomstige investeringen. En die zijn nu net in verduurzaming en niet in fossiel (1/2

  15. https://opendata.hunzeenaas.nl/opendataportaal/srv/dut/catalog.search;jsessionid=416F7ED86DDCAD64A9D929F16CD178D6#/metadata/2de5d694-8c4d-4f68-a6b2-5630792d9056
    SBS6 https://app.nlziet.nl/vod/dZvFxAvmHkiYibxBEjLsMw ZevenWonders SBS9

Posted on November 25, 2021 22:01 by ahospers ahospers | 6 comments | Leave a comment

Actividades en Tres Cantos para el Biomaratón de Otoño 2021

En Tres Cantos, puedes participar en el Bioamaratón de otoño de varias maneras:

  • Por libre, solos o con familia y amigos. Descubriréis la biodiversidad de Tres Cantos explorando los diferentes rincones de nuestro municipio.

  • Día 26: Vista al Parque Norte (o de la Cabezuela) a cargo de @Iberozoa .

  • Día 28: Salida por el Parque de los Alcornoques en la Jornadas de Puertas abiertas de @arba3c quedamos alas 10:30n en el bvivero de ARBA Tres Cantos en el mismo parque.

Durante todo el fin de semana podrás participar en el concurso fotográfico a cargo de @iberozoa

Aprovecha para aprender e informarte sobre los espacios naturales de nuestro municipio la Plataforma por el Entorno Natural de Tres Cantos pondrá unas mesas informativas en el Parque de la Cabezuela y del Terregal (o del Este).

Posted on November 25, 2021 21:03 by arba3c arba3c | 0 comments | Leave a comment

¡Comienza el Biomaratón de otoño 2021!

¡El Biomaratón de otoño 2021 comienza el 26 de noviembre a las 00:00 y termina el 28 de mayo a las 23:59!
En el Biomaratón de otoño Tres Cantos 2020 registramos 1218 observaciones de 374 especies siendo el cuarto municipio con más registros entre los participantes, por detrás de Colmaenar Viejo, Guadarrama, y Fuencarral-El Pardo. ¿Cuántas observaciones seremos capaces de registrar este año?

Este año el proyecto de Tres Cantos participa, no solo con otros proyectos de España, sino también con nuestro país hermano, Portugal. Podéis ver los proyectos locales aquí:
https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/biomaraton-de-otono-2021-58c19869-651b-44eb-bc19-78b5d42cb376

Sin duda pasaremos un fin de semana divertido que aprovecharemos para conocer y dar a conocer la biodiversidad de Tres Cantos. aprovecha y sal al campo con amigos y familiares o aprovecha y acércate a algunas de las actividades que hemo planeado en Tres Cantos, puedes consultarlas pinchando AQUÍ

Algunos consejos:

  • Desactivar la opción de sincronización automática de las observaciones en la app, subidlas cuando tengáis wifi.
  • Recordar tener el GPS del móvil y de la cámara activo, esto es, que las coordenadas queden grabadas en los metadatos de la foto.
  • A veces es más rápido hacer las fotos con la cámara del móvil, fuera de la app, y luego compartirlas con como si las enviarais, pero en vez de elegir la opción compartir por whatsapp o correo,…eliges compartir por iNaturalist. La app permite grabar y subir sonidos(canto de aves). Recordar que queden grabadas las coordenadas en la fotografía (mirar opciones de la cámara del móvil)
  • Si haces las fotos con una cámara independiente, recuerda anotar dónde las habéis hecho para luego, una vez descargadas en el ordenador, poder ubicarlas manualmente.
  • Para el Biomaratón solo se admiten observaciones de organismos encontrados y fotografiados durante los días del biomaratón 26 al 28 de noviembre . No vale modificar las fechas artificialmente.
  • Para seguir la la participación global en España y Portugal https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/biomaraton-de-otono-espana-y-portugal-2021

Más recursos:

Videotutorial rápido sobre cómo darse de alta y comenzar a registrar observaciones hecho por @anapri:

Posted on November 25, 2021 20:38 by arba3c arba3c | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Leave This Soapberry? Or Uproot This Chinese Pistache? How Can I Tell?

In the woods of Central Texas, you will find saplings of both the native western soapberry (Sapindus drummondii) and the highly invasive Chinese pistache (Pistacia chinensis). We want to preserve and nurture the soapberry, and to do so we must control competition from exotic invaders. But there is a special challenge here: because both species produce even-pinnate compound leaves, sometimes produce wings along the rachis (especially when young), and often produce odd-pinnate compound leaves (again, especially when young), telling them apart takes more than a cursory inspection.

Most guides rely on the scent of the leaves:

  • The leaves of S. drummondii have a nondescript aroma—the kind of smell produced by the crushed leaves of just about any plant not noted for its scent.
  • For most people, the scent of P. chinensis is a repulsively overwhelming mix of pine, citrus, camphor, and kerosene. (As with wine or fine chocolate, different people pick up different notes.) Personally, I put it somewhere on the scale between demonic and downright horrid, but a few people actually find it attractive.

So usually telling whether a sapling is one or the other is as simple as rubbing a leaf and sniffing. But what about that second sapling? Are you smelling its scent, or the residual pistache from the first sapling's leaves? And what if reaching the sapling means going through poison ivy? Or greenbrier? Wouldn't it be nice to be able to tell the two apart visually?

Fortunately, you can. And often the answer is quick: If the leaves or immature stems show any hint of redness—even a shade just barely to the orange side of lemon yellow—it is not a soapberry. If you have otherwise narrowed it down to these two species, it's Chinese pistache.

Failing that, telling the two apart is still easy, if you look closely. You will find differences in these traits:

  • Bark. On the western soapberry, the bark of just-hardened stems is usually light gray—in fact, almost white. On Chinese pistache, it's usually cinnamon colored. (If you have narrowed the identification down to these two species and any segment of the tree has cinnamon-colored bark, it's Chinese pistache.)
  • Tips of the twigs. On western soapberry, bud breaks near the end of the twigs are usually very short. The direction of growth varies slightly from one bud break to the next, so the tips of the twigs are almost always slightly crooked. On Chinese pistache, the bud breaks tend to be much longer, so usually the end of a twig, stem, or trunk will be ramrod straight.
  • Branch angles.
  • The branches western soapberry emerge at moderately wide angles—say, 15 to 50 degrees or so, but branches of Chinese pistache emerge at angles much closer to 90 degrees. Often when you're examining the growing tip of a sapling you will see near the tip a lateral branch that has emerged at no more than a 30-degree angle, cinching the identification.
  • Branching pattern. In addition to the wide branching angle, Chinese pistache tends to branch out in an idiosyncratic pattern—a pattern you will never see on a soapberry. It won't appear everywhere on the tree, but you can usually detect it somewhere. Starting from the lowest node (branching point), follow the central stem of the sapling. Usually there will be a relatively wide span with no lateral branches at all, and then bam! Several branches come out at about the same wide angle, and the next segment of the central stem continues for another uninterrupted span before several branches appear at once again. The groups of branches are nearly whorls, but they don't all emerge from the same node. They are all close to the node, but not all at it. Examining the whorl-ish groups more closely, you will see that the more branches each includes the more unequal the branches are in strength. Often one is much, much stronger than all the rest; occasionally two or three are all the same strength; often most are very weak. This general pattern will repeat itself along the trunk and all significant branches. Sometimes it does so only sporadically, but you usually can find it at least once on saplings no more than knee high and two or three times on saplings that have reached head high. As the trunk or main branch increases in size, the number of laterals branching out in each of these whorl-ish groups will increase. The disparity in the strength of the laterals increases, too.

I'm sure there are many more structural details we could use to differentiate these two species, but these macroscopic cues have worked very well for me.

Oh, there is one more, very important test: If the tree passes all of the above tests for Chinese pistache, check out its root system. Be sure to separate every bit of dirt from every one of its roots. Look at it, and then toss it into an appropriate place—a compost pile, a shredder, or up in the branches of another tree or bush. Come back and reexamine it in a week. If it dies, it was Chinese pistache. If it lives, repeat the test, just to be sure.

Unless, of course, you are observing the trees in China.

Posted on November 25, 2021 20:36 by baldeagle baldeagle | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Information on Botany

Hi my name is Jessica. I'm looking for work but I'm unsure of what I want as a career as of yet. So far in my journey I discovered that I may have an interest in Botany. I was wondering if anyone had any knowledge in that field of work. I preferably want an idea on how extensive the research is. Also would like to know how difficult it is to learn or do botany. You can contact me through this site. My username is jess_. I would greatly appreciate the information.

Posted on November 25, 2021 19:54 by jess_ jess_ | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Biomaratón de otoño 2021, 26 al 28 de noviembre.

Por segundo año consecutivo llega el Biomaratón de Otoño. Esta vez en con la participación de proyectos en España y Portugal.
En Tres Cantos participamos con un proyecto local BIOMARATÓN DE OTOÑO TRES CANTOS 2021, al que os animamos a uniros.

El Biomaratón de otoño 2021 comienza el 26 de noviembre a las 00:00 y termina el 28 de mayo a las 23:59

Algunos consejos:

Pasadlo muy bien y disfrutar de la naturaleza de Portugal y España, no olvidéis respetar la normativa sanitaria vigente si es que existiera (límites de reunión, mascarillas, distancia, higiene de manos, etc.)


Más recursos:

Videotutorial rápido sobre cómo darse de alta y comenzar a registrar observaciones hecho por @anapri:

Posted on November 25, 2021 19:44 by arba3c arba3c | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Test post

Let's see what this puppy can do

Posted on November 25, 2021 19:04 by piege86 piege86 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

2021 Additions to Odonate Life List

New Dragonflies and Damselflies to the Texas Life List

You can always tell when someone is new to natural observations. They talk about their "life list" a lot. It's understandable. So many new species, so many new field marks to get to know, so many new sites to find and keep track of. Above all, though, that life list expands very rapidly. I'm one of those people right now when it comes to odonates. I've only been keeping track for three years. Two of those three have been pandemic years, so I haven't ventured out much beyond my base region in Central Texas. Even so, my list expanded by about 30% over last year.

Species Date First Observed
Stream Cruiser 03/17/2021
Plains Clubtail 03/17/2021
Springtime Darner 03/19/2021
Jade Clubtail 05/09/2021
Swift River Cruiser 05/26/2021
Black-shouldered Spinyleg 06/05/2021
Five-striped Leaftail 06/10/2021
Common Sanddragon 06/10/2021
Bronzed River Cruiser 06/20/2021
Stillwater Clubtail 06/20/2021
Dragonhunter 06/26/2021
Skimming Bluet 06/26/2021
Swamp Darner 07/01/2021
Cyrano Darner 07/23/2021
Marl Pennant Male 08/06/2021
Blue-faced Ringtail 09/11/2021
Chalky Spreadwings 10/02/2021
Blue-faced Meadowhawk 10/10/2021
Striped Saddlebags 11/24/2021

*There is remote possibility of a Two-striped Forceptail . Any feedback would be most welcome.

Posted on November 25, 2021 18:50 by vsvogelaar vsvogelaar | 1 observation | 3 comments | Leave a comment

Thankful

The San Mateo County Bio-Blitz project factotum is grateful for all of you who contribute, and thankful that we live in a county of such natural abundance. Let's protect it and love it so that it will be here for generations to come!

Have a happy day of Thanksgiving.

Posted on November 25, 2021 18:06 by gyrrlfalcon gyrrlfalcon | 0 comments | Leave a comment

The European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

The European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is an invasive species that is native to Europe. It was intentionally introduced in 1890 to New York City’s Central Park by the America Acclimatization Society. They released 100 birds to Central Park with the hopes of introducing the many bird species that were mentioned throughout Shakespeare’s works and seeing them represented in North America [1].

Since their introduction, the European Starling has become widespread across North America, ranging from Mexico all the way up to the Northern treeline in Canada. Already by 1950 they had spread across the North American continent and reach the Pacific Coast. They prefer open regions such as fields, pastures, lawns, marshes, and shorelines, and so, they can be found in both rural and urban settings.

Starlings are aggressive cavity nesters who live in enormous flocks, outcompeting native cavity nesting birds for nest sites. Starlings typically build nests in tree holes, nest boxes, openings in building walls, cliff crevices and rural mailboxes. They often form roosts under bridges, on ledges, or in trees. The combined weight of the birds has been known to break branches of trees. As a stewardship action to reduce this invasive alien species impact, you can repair and seal and exterior cavities where birds can nest, with openings like vents that can’t be sealed the openings should be covered with wire mesh.

European Starlings have short stubby tails and triangular wings. They are generally described as “chunky” and humpbacked birds. As adults they range 19-23cm in length with a wingspan of 31-44cm. Breeding starlings have glossy black plumage with purple and green reflections, yellow ills, and reddish brown legs. In the Fall, Starling’s bills become darker in colour and white spots develop on the body feathers.

European starlings are omnivores, feeding mainly on insects and fruit, but will also forage on human food waste and on agricultural crops [1]. For this reason, as another stewardship action, you can eliminate anthropogenic food sources which includes bird feeders for other species.

A fun fact about European Starlings is that they are excellent vocal mimics and can mimic the song of up to 20 different bird species.

  1. New York Invasive Species (IS) Information. European Starling. Updated: May 31, 2021 [accessed September 10, 2021]. Retrieved from: http://nyis.info/invasive_species/european-starling/

Posted on November 25, 2021 17:45 by jgilice1 jgilice1 | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Happy Thanksgiving!

Happy Thanksgiving everyone! Hope you're all having a good day with family. If you want the weekly news, 42 observations added in the past week puts the project's total count to 868. We are now literally fifty more reports away from breaking our 2020 record and that was my goal all along, to surpass our all-time low. And if we continue strong, we'll break the 2019 record.

Yesterday was really exciting for me, so the Observation of the Week goes to myself. While driving the road that hugs the Union/Baker county border, a Red-tailed Hawk take off from the field, flew past us, then looped back until it landed directly above. When I saw it in flight, I saw the bright white uppertail coverts and the person I was birding with saw the thin patagium and white underwings. As I leaned dangerously out my car window and taking photos of the bird above me, I saw the white throat, unmarked flanks and a heavily retained molt. This hawk is not a local. I think it's a give or take case, a more lightly marked abieticola or a more heavily marked borealis. Either way a vagrant that shouldn't be here, but maybe not so much. Maybe I'm just the luckiest hawk watcher out there, or these vagrants are more common than reported as this'll represent my fifth or sixth abieticola/borealis Red-tailed. You can see my photos here:

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/101861375

While you all eat a delicious turkey today, we are approaching the last week of November. Raptors are definitely coming in in strong numbers. Besides my vagrant Red-tailed, I also got two Harlan's (my fourth of the season), a Sharp-shinned, Rough-legged Hawk, a bunch of kestrels and my favorite spot, a Northern Pygmy-Owl. It is a perfect time for raptor watching, especially since the first snow fell this week. Good luck to you and have a good day!

Posted on November 25, 2021 16:53 by birdwhisperer birdwhisperer | 0 comments | Leave a comment

Опрос участников МФК "Полевая биология" (анонимный)

Уважаемые слушатели!

Мы хотим узнать ваше мнение о курсе и его востребованности. Планировалось, что этот опрос будет после последней лекции, однако до 8 декабря мы должны подать заявку на проведение МФК в весеннем семестре 2022 года. Нам важно ваше мнение!

Опрос анонимный, включает два обязательных пункта (выбрать один ответ) и один необязательный (текстовое сообщение).

Ссылка на форму:
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScQC79UCbMM9j9sFY-c6TBqsuHdvykpyvwLij6p2cReTrsemA/viewform?usp=sf_link

Альтернативная ссылка на ту же форму:
https://forms.gle/995utymqw1Vm4yDg6

Posted on November 25, 2021 16:35 by apseregin apseregin

Clay Anderson will present a virtual walk about Winter Birds @ Lake Merritt in Oakland CA-free, online Dec. 3rd, 7-8 p.m.

Winter birds travel thousands of miles every winter, some of them, to Lake Merritt in the heart of urban Oakland. Join us as Naturalist Clay Anderson leads a virtual walk to find and learn more about the birds hanging out at Lake Merritt. Clay was awarded Bay Nature’s Local Hero Award in 2021 for his inspirational work as Youth Coordinator and Program Manager at the Golden Gate Audubon Society. Register by eventbrite to get zoom link and YouTube recording later.
Free, online. 7-8 p.m. on December 3rd.

Register HERE => https://lakeside-chat-13-winter-birds.eventbrite.com
The zoom link to join the program is in the confirmation email when you get a free ticket

Sponsored by Rotary Nature Center Friends
Rotary Nature Center Friends is a community 501c3 nonprofit advocating for the Rotary Nature Center in Lakeside Park as an interpretive education and science center for all the people of Oakland and as the Steward for the Lake Merritt Wildlife Refuge.

Posted on November 25, 2021 16:32 by ktnoon ktnoon | 0 comments | Leave a comment

'Shoot the Bird' 2021

The kids stayed at home and we brought our friend, Mary, to the coast for our 7th annual Shoot the Bird at Thanksgiving . We began at Anahuac NWR's Chenier Plains Visitor's Center where I was able to ID a new species of Aster: Drummond's. It was relatively quiet, but the spiders were out beyond the boardwalk to be shot with the long lens in low lighting ... never a great combo. Did the best I could with what I had! Shot 'em all.

Turning off to head toward the refuge, we witnessed from the car a red-tailed hawk and adult bald eagle engage in an in-flight kerfuffle. Something to see indeed, but by the time I got out of the car with the camera, the fight was all but over. Shot both guys for good measure as they flew away.

Next we spent several hours exploring the refuge which was relatively free from the non-feathered two-legged species (aka people). All to ourselves! A couple huge flocks of birds flew over: snow geese and white pelican. I ignored the second as I was focused instead on the beautiful juvenile bald eagle flying overhead, begging to shot, I shot him!

We tripped over a sunning cottonmouth. Thankfully, we were looking DOWN and not ups, so no one was bothered by the encounter. The 600mm long lens really comes in handy. I shot him!

Out on the jetties of the auto tour loop, highlights were watching many harriers hunt and flush creatures from the reeds. Fulvous whistling ducks and rosette spoonbills were in great numbers, more than we usually witness. Shot what we could.

We finished up first at Smith Oaks Rookery where we saw some gawd-awful ugly little cormorant babes in many nests there. Had no idea these birds raised families so late in the year. Didn't shoot any, though. Onward to the Boliar Flats Sanctuary because we just couldn't finish the day without shooting all the pretty shorebirds. Looked and looked for Snowy and Piping Plover, but alas, we not only didn't see any, I didn't get to shoot them either.

You're welcome, Mr. Turkey, for keeping your life as yours. Because it is just so unnecessary to exploit and kill another just for a day of gratitude and pleasure. DISCLAIMER: No animals were exploited or killed in our Shoot the Bird Thanksgiving Day outing.

Posted on November 25, 2021 16:16 by dirtnkids dirtnkids | 69 observations | 0 comments | Leave a comment

O que é o PROJETO DE CONSERVAÇÃO DA BAÍA DAS TARTARUGAS?

O Projeto de Conservação da Baía das Tartarugas tem como objetivo geral realizar e fomentar pesquisas científicas, comunicação (cultural e difusão científica), sensibilização ambiental e fomento ao turismo na Unidade de Conservação APA BAÍA DAS TARTARUGAS, localizada em Vitória-ES.

ÁREA DE ATUAÇÃO
A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA) Baía das Tartarugas é uma nova Unidade de Conservação (UC) de uso sustentável, que foi decretada pela Prefeitura do Município de Vitória em 2018. A APA, gerida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Vitória, tem o intuito de desenvolver atividades de re-significar a área que possui uma das mais ricas biodiversidades do mundo, mesmo estando localizada em uma área urbana.

O PROJETO
O Instituto Últimos Refúgios teve a iniciativa de criar o Projeto de Conservação da Baía das Tartarugas com o objetivo geral de realizar e fomentar pesquisas científicas, comunicação (cultural e difusão científica), sensibilização ambiental e fomento ao turismo. Tendo como foco a valorização da biodiversidade e propostas para evolução do contexto social local.

É importante frisar que o Projeto não tem a pretensão de substituir ou sobrepor o órgão gestor (PMV), o conselho da UC, ou quaisquer outras instituições que atuem no local, mas sim fortalecer os esforços de conservação.Estamos abertos à parceria de pessoas e outras instituições.

JUNTOS PELA BAÍA DAS TARTARUGAS!
A região litorânea de Vitória-ES, recentemente, em 2018, tornou-se a primeira Unidade de Conservação Marinha de Vitória por meio do Decreto Municipal nº 17.342, que foi publicado no Diário Oficial do município (BRASIL, 2018).
De acordo com este decreto, a nova Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA), que recebeu o título de “Baía das Tartarugas”, envolve toda a Baía de Vitória, englobando a Praia de Camburi, Praia do Canto e Ilhas do Boi e do Frade, somando uma área de 1.685,47 hectares.
A APA Baía das Tartarugas é administrada pela Secretaria Municipal de Meio Ambiente de Vitória (SEMMAM) e visa uma melhoria na qualidade ambiental e na preservação da biodiversidade marinha do ecossistema costeiro. Buscando planos de recuperação e preservação da área, a Secretaria busca a elaboração do Plano de Manejo da nova Unidade de Conservação (PREFEITURA DE VITÓRIA, 2018).
Neste sentido, o Instituto Últimos Refúgios teve a iniciativa de criar o Projeto de Conservação da Baía das Tartarugas, com a pretensão de entender o contexto ambiental e social, apoiando e dando subsídio para a adoção de medidas públicas para a conservação da APA, bem como divulgar e valorizar a biodiversidade existente sensibilizando os usuários da Baía. Buscando também alternativas para solucionar problemas sociais frequentes na área, como pesca predatória e poluição.

A APA BAÍA DAS TARTARUGAS
Sabe-se que a Grande Vitória sofre há anos com a pressão imobiliária em suas praias, a poluição do mar por empreendimentos diversos, o despejo de esgoto “in natura”, a pesca predatória e o lixo descartado incorretamente, tanto nas praias, quanto nos rios que desaguam no entorno da APA. Esses são apenas alguns problemas, dentre tantos outros, que uma Unidade de Conservação dentro de uma capital sofre.
Algumas espécies que sofrem com pressões antrópicas na região, encontram-se em categorias de ameaça. Segundo o Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção, a Tartaruga-verde (Chelonia mydas L.), uma das espécies de tartarugas marinhas de ocorrência na APA, encontra-se em categoria vulnerável, devido à maturação tardia, tornando sua recuperação lenta (ICMBIO, 2018).
Entretanto, é importante salientar que Vitória é situada dentro de uma região estuarina, que é favorável à manutenção de ecossistemas. Tendo em seu território, por exemplo, um grande manguezal. De acordo com PORTO, et al. (2007) um dos maiores manguezais urbanos no país se encontra em Vitória, no Espírito Santo, com área superior a 800 hectares.
O manguezal, além de ser considerado um berçário para diversas espécies marinhas, também apresenta importância econômica para a população, que retira dele seu sustento. Por ser uma área de transição entre o ambiente terrestre e marinho, muitas espécies se beneficiam dessa riqueza de nutrientes que ele proporciona. Além de prover abrigo para muitas espécies marinhas que o utilizam como área de reprodução.
Um grande exemplo desse beneficiamento é o peixe Mero (Epinephelus itajara), que em sua fase juvenil pode ser encontrado nos estuários entre raízes de mangues. O mero é caracterizado por ser uma espécie eurialina, que apresenta adaptações fisiológicas para suportar variações de salinidade (PEREIRA et al, 2021) e, também está listado na categoria vulnerável da lista vermelha de espécies ameaçadas de extinção, tendo a última avaliação feita em 2016 (IUCN, 2021).
Além de reforçada pelos manguezais, um fato interessante é que a Baía das Tartarugas representa o início da cadeia de Vitória-Trindade e também do Banco dos Abrolhos, que são mundialmente conhecidos por sua grande diversidade de espécies e importância ecológica, ambos possuindo um enorme potencial para manutenção do ecossistema marinho. Além disso, a localização geográfica de Vitória faz com que seja beneficiada pelo encontro de correntes marinhas vindas do sul (mais frias) e correntes vindas do norte (mais quentes). Isso fez com que o clima da região se mantivesse estável por milhões de anos, sendo menos vulnerável às variações climáticas do planeta. Não é por coincidência que muitas espécies escolham o Espírito Santo e a Bahia como seu berçário, a exemplo das tartarugas-de-couro e das baleias-jubarte.
A presença destes fatores podem ser grandes influenciadores da existência de uma ampla biodiversidade ainda encontrada na Baía das Tartarugas, principalmente as tartarugas marinhas e peixes recifais, que mesmo ameaçados, ainda são abundantes na APA. Motivo que elegeram, as tartarugas, em especial, como personagem fundamental para a escolha do nome da Unidade de Conservação.

CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO DO PROJETO
Atualmente, composta por 33 ilhas (Prefeitura de Vitória, 2019), estimando 365.855 habitantes (IBGE, 2020), Vitória é o centro da Grande Vitória, uma Região Metropolitana que reúne outros seis municípios: Serra, Fundão, Cariacica, Vila Velha, Viana e Guarapari. A cidade reúne também, características positivas em relação às condições sociais, econômicas, políticas e culturais, para a conservação e sustentabilidade da APA Baía das Tartarugas.
No entanto, o crescimento urbano também apresenta diversas interferências antrópicas, que resultam em consequências por vezes irreversíveis. A utilização inadequada dos recursos naturais, a poluição em forma de várias vertentes e a fragmentação do ecossistema marinho com ocupação desordenada, são exemplos de impactos antrópicos.
Diante disso, o Projeto de Conservação Baía das Tartarugas visa a evolução do mapeamento da área, pontuando as questões naturais e sociais, com identificação dos principais atrativos naturais, empreendimentos, roteiros e circuitos turísticos (inclusive com uso de GPS/GIS). Além da identificação da biodiversidade e das interações negativas. O projeto busca a conservação da APA através da pesquisa, difusão científica, educação ambiental, fomento ao turismo / esportes e mitigação de conflitos, com o objetivo de sensibilizar a sociedade e propor soluções ambientais.
Outra vertente que justifica a iniciativa deste projeto, é a carência de registros fotográficos e vídeos documentais (e sua divulgação) de qualidade sobre os aspectos naturais e sociais da região e, consequentemente, a falta de conhecimento da riqueza de biodiversidade existente e das normas de utilização que regem a APA.
É importante destacar que, embora exista material de cunho científico sobre a APA, pouco foi produzido, fora do escopo do projeto e de iniciativas isoladas de ONGs locais, para divulgar a importância da mesma junto ao público não especializado (difusão científica). Esse público, denominado público de interesse geral, pode ser atingido utilizando-se ferramentas culturais e de atividades conectadas à divulgação científica.
A falta de conhecimento pode culminar em uma população menos sensível às questões ambientais. Com o alcance das mídias e a captação do interesse da sociedade, os gestores públicos passam a dar mais atenção às questões ambientais e, por sua vez, tomar medidas para que aquele bem natural seja melhor protegido e/ou recuperado.

ATUAÇÃO ANTES DA CRIAÇÃO DA UNIDADE DE CONSERVAÇÃO
A proposta do projeto foi iniciada em dezembro de 2016, antes da criação da APA. As ações foram somadas aos esforços de parceiros para a criação da Unidade de Conservação. Nossa participação foi por meio do mapeamento e divulgação do ambiente e da fauna da Baía das Tartarugas, assim como a apresentação dos resultados ao governo municipal e estadual. A grande biodiversidade marinha surpreendeu os envolvidos e ajudou a sensibilizar os responsáveis pela criação da APA Baía das Tartarugas.
Desde então, iniciativas visando a promoção e conservação da Unidade de Conservação foram colocadas em prática pelo Instituto Últimos Refúgios, somando forças às outras iniciativas locais de proteger a área.

AÇÕES DO PROJETO - ATUAIS E FUTURAS

MAPEAMENTO PRELIMINAR
O início dos esforços do mapeamento da Baía das Tartarugas, mesmo que preliminares, já trouxeram uma clareza sobre a situação ecológica e social envolvendo a Baía das Tartarugas.
Foram mapeadas algumas das áreas de mergulho, identificando os conflitos mais eminentes e elencando algumas das espécies bandeira, as quais podem ser utilizadas como símbolos da conservação local. Com mais de 50 incursões realizadas, o projeto já possui um bom material fotográfico e audiovisual sobre a APA, todos com data, localidade e espécies identificadas.
Pretende-se expandir esse monitoramento para todas as áras da Baía das Tartarugas e também realizar o levantamento social.

DIVULGAÇÃO DAS BELEZAS
Para que a população e governo valorizem ainda mais a APA, a equipe do Projeto de Conservação da Baía das Tartarugas já conseguiu fazer com que as riquezas naturais da Baía das Tartarugas fossem noticiadas em matérias em veículos de imprensa locais, estaduais e nacionais. Inclusive uma inserção na edição impressa da National Geographic.

PROJETO VITÓRIA DA RESTINGA
O Instituto Últimos Refúgios em parceira com a Vale, iniciou um projeto envolvendo o ecossistema de restinga da Orla de Camburi em Vitória-ES, por meio de ações de sensibilização ambiental. Proporcionando através de diálogos, capacitações, educação ambiental e difusão científica, uma evolução da mentalidade sobre a restinga e sua importância para a biodiversidade.

PROJETO ECOFRADE
O problema do descarte incorreto de resíduos sólidos é uma constante na sociedade contemporânea. O Instituto Últimos Refúgios através de uma parceria com a SAMIFRA e a Vale, iniciou um projeto de coleta de resíduos e sensibilização ambiental na Ilha do Frade, em Vitória-ES, um projeto piloto, com o potencial de ser replicado em outras localidades. As ações envolvem o desenvolvimento de coleta seletiva envolvendo cooperativas que geram renda através dos resíduos coletados e, não menos importante, a conscientização dos moradores para participarem da iniciativa.

PRODUÇÃO DE FOTO E VÍDEOS
São produzidas fotografias e vídeos de toda a rica biodiversidade e interações sociais da Baía das Tartarugas. Com esse material em arquivo, são produzidas peças gráficas (digitais e impressas) e apresentando a natureza local, o projeto e as propostas de turismo sustentável.

PRODUTOS CULTURAIS
Elaboração de material gráfico (digital e/ou impresso) divulgando as belezas naturais, bem como informando as boas práticas relacionadas à Unidades de Conservação com configuração de APA, identificando interações antrópicas e impactos ambientais, sugerindo alternativas mitigadoras para a redução dos impactos. Esse tipo de material pode chamar a atenção para muitas pessoas que utilizam a Unidade de Conservação e seus atrativos naturais.

AÇÕES DE SENSIBILIZAÇÃO
O projeto tem o intuito de sensibilizar um público abrangente, envolvendo a sociedade capixaba, pescadores, usuários da APA, professores e alunos da Grande Vitória e região. Além do público especializado formado por pesquisadores, professores, biólogos, técnicos e artistas.

Para isso, pretendemos desenvolver e apoiar ações de sensibilização ambiental desenvolvidas pelo poder público e por outras instituíções, assim como o Instituto Últimos Refúgios já vem fazendo durante mais de 1 década.

PUBLICAÇÃO ORIGINAL COM FOTOS: https://www.ultimosrefugios.org.br/baiadastartarugas

Posted on November 25, 2021 15:53 by leonardomercon leonardomercon

Baía das Tartarugas: Unidade de Conservação no ES

“As pessoas só protegem o que sabem que existe!”

A Baía das Tartarugas é a primeira APA marinha (Área de Proteção Ambiental) de Vitória! Fundada em 2018, tem como objetivo conservar e recuperar a vida marinha encantadora que existe desde o início da Praia de Camburi até a Terceira Ponte.

A APA foi batizada em homenagem às tartarugas marinhas, que regularmente são vistas nadando pela Baía de Vitória e auxiliam como sentinelas da qualidade climática. Estas, apesar de serem abundantes, são muito afetadas pela poluição que é lançada ao mar!

Em uma parceria de diversas ONGs, incluindo o Instituto Últimos Refúgios, foi criada uma campanha de divulgação da APA com o lema “As pessoas só protegem o que sabem que existe!”. O foco é valorizar a riqueza natural da baía e popularizar o grande potencial para o ecoturismo na região, que conta com várias alternativas de atividades.

Diversas opções de esportes aquáticos:

Natação; Caiaque;

Canoagem; Stand Up Paddle;

Jet Ski; Mergulho Contemplativo;

Vela; Lanchas;

Remo; Windsurf, dentre vários outros.

Com isso, foi criada a página “Baía das Tartarugas” no Instagram e Facebook, onde, frequentemente, são publicados registros incríveis das belezas naturais, atividades recreativas e diversidade biológica de nossas praias, como nas fotos acima. E o mais legal é que VOCÊ pode participar! Ao publicar uma foto ou vídeo feitos na Baía. É só utilizar a hashtag #baiadastartarugas. Há grandes chances do seu registro ser repostado, com os devidos créditos, nas páginas!

A campanha já possui vários projetos e instituições adeptas, que auxiliam na produção e divulgação de conteúdo, voltados para a preservação da Baía das Tartarugas. Entretanto, isto não anula a imensa necessidade da participação da comunidade! Não deixe de participar!

Um exemplo desta participação, são os atletas que utilizam a baía, que estão constantemente recolhendo lixos do mar e salvando tartarugas presas à redes de pesca. Sem esquecer dos lindos registros das paisagens e dos animais que são compartilhados!

Na APA, pode-se observar muitos animais incríveis, dentro e fora da água! Como tartarugas, golfinhos, cavalos-marinhos, corais, baleias Jubarte, aves costeiras, peixes de todas as cores, e muito mais!

Mergulho na baía
Excelentes praias para relaxar e apreciar a natureza.
Nossas praias são muito apreciadas pelos moradores e turistas! Há tanto praias com quiosques e diversas áreas de lazer, quanto praias menores e mais reservadas. Seguem algumas indicações!

Ponta do Tubarão:
Possui várias praias maravilhosas e pequenas que, separadas por formações rochosas, são ideais para mergulhar!

Praia de Camburi:
A maior praia da Capital capixaba! Apresenta uma ótima estrutura para lazer, sendo um dos destinos preferidos dos turistas! O foco não é o mergulho, pois por se encontrar em “mar aberto” suas águas são mais turvas. Mas é muito utilizada por banhistas, para se exercitar no calçadão, pescar com anzol e praticar diversos esportes como surf, remo, windsurf e vários outros!

Ilhas do Boi e do Frade:
São ilhas residenciais, ligadas ao continente, com pequenas praias cercadas por rochedos. Excelentes para mergulho com snorkel, com vasta biodiversidade marinha, incluindo tartarugas, e para relaxar!

Curva da Jurema:
Uma linda enseada, localizada próxima ao Shopping Vitória. Com águas calmas e rasas, é perfeita para curtir uma praia com a família! Por ser uma região de reprodução e alimentação de muitas espécies marinhas, é comum presenciar grandes cardumes de peixes, raias e tartarugas!

Contamos com você para compartilhar, curtir, comentar e preservar as lindas e ricas praias de Vitória!

Posted on November 25, 2021 15:45 by leonardomercon leonardomercon

Cover and Boundry

Happy Thanksgiving! Keep the observations coming!
The cover Photo has been updated and the KML file for the boundary updated to reflect updates in Google Maps 2021 Coverage.

Jack

Posted on November 25, 2021 15:00 by jack-verdin jack-verdin | 0 comments | Leave a comment
More