May 09, 2019

Protoparmeliopsis muralis and related species

From LichenPortal.org, regarding Protoparmeliopsis

Notes: As delimited here, Lecanora muralis is an extremely variable taxon, probably representing a complex of species. Some of the more distinctive variants in our region are var. brunneola (Mereschk.) B.D. Ryan & T.H. Nash, with brown thallus containing isousnic instead of or in addition to usnic acid (Arizona), and ssp. dubyi (Müll. Arg.) Poelt s. lato, with coarse, thick, often loosely attached lobes (widespread). There are a number of chemical variations, including a few populations lacking leucotylin; in Eurasia some of these chemical variations appear to correlate with morphological characters and have been named as separate specific or infraspecific taxa; much further study of these is needed before any of these names can be applied to North (or South) American material. Material from Santa Catalina Island, collected in 1895 by Hasse, was referred to by Hasse (1903b) as var. catalinae Stizenb. (nomen nudum); examination of material in NY annotated as this taxon by Hasse shows that it fits well within typical var. muralis as delimited in the present treatment.

P garovaglii seems, per the obvious features, to be very similar. Still comparing the two descriptions. Apparently the diagnostic features are details that won't be apparent in a photograph.

Then there's Lecanora.

Posted on May 09, 2019 00:09 by slwhiteco slwhiteco | 0 comments | Leave a comment

March 02, 2019

Some notes on Cladonia

Relative to observations: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20874920; https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20532945

Memo: look at underside of squamules next time

Cladonia pyxidata
Description below from CNALH, which by the way lists at least 30 forms and ssp (I stopped counting at "m").
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent; squamules: 2-5 mm long, 1-3 mm wide, entire or irregularly crenate-lobate; lobes: mostly ascending, lower side brownish white; medulla: fairly thin podetia: 3-20 mm tall, greenish gray to brown, cup-bearing; cups: 8-12 mm wide, usually simple; margins: entire or with short proliferations surface: corticate or ecorticate, dull, cortex verruculose, breaking into granules or giving rise to isidioid, schizidioid or phyllidioid structures (also occurring in the cup interiors, appearing as appressed squamules) Apothecia: common, up to 8 mm wide, on c. 3 mm long stalks on cup margins, reddish brown to darker

Habitat and ecology: on soil, especially acidic mineral soil and thin soil over rocks, more rarely over wood, mainly arctic to temperate World distribution: on all continents
Cladonia pyxidata is comparable to C. pocillum, but its primary squamules are thinner, more ascending and almost dull, and the lower side is not clearly pure white. The almost stalkless cup of C. pyxidata, which widens gradually from the base, is a diagnostic character. The peltate squamules in the cup interiors of C. pyxidata may also occur in mature specimens of C. chlorophaea, C. dimorpha, C. hammeri and C. pulvinella. However, they are characteristic even in young specimens of C. pyxidata. See also the discussion under C. chlorophaea.

Cladonia chlorophaea
Description below from: CNALH
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent or disappearing; squamules: 3-6 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, irregularly crenate-lobate podetia: 2-15 (-45) mm tall, brownish green to gray, stout to more or less slender, cup-bearing; cups: 2-6 mm wide surface: ecorticate, granulose to sorediate, largely bare on old podetia; soredia: coarse, intergrading with granules and isidioid structures, sometimes forming podetial squamules

Habitat and ecology: on rotten wood, tree trunks, mineral soil or humus World distribution: all continents, mainly temperate to boreal
Notes: This species is very similar to C. pyxidata, and especially juvenile or senescent specimens can be impossible to identify with certainty. Some authors are inclined to unite C. chlorophaea and C. pyxidata, because it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between them, even though the presence or absence of soredia (actually granules) should distinguish the two.

Posted on March 02, 2019 14:26 by slwhiteco slwhiteco | 0 comments | Leave a comment

January 29, 2019

How to Start Lichen ID

Where I can, I've been trying to add at least a genus to lichen photos I encounter here on iNat. Other people, with more knowledge, are also helpful at generic and even species levels. But where do you start as a novice, especially if you have no keys? With 85% of my books, including lichen ID materials, still in storage (long story), I'm thrown on the resources of the internet. Here are a few suggestions for exploring lichen basics:

Here is an online lichen key from the UK for 60 British lichens on twigs: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life/plants-fungi/lichen-id-guide (from the Natural History Museum at South Kensington); they also have a glossary of terms. To get started, click on fruticose, foliose, or crustose. You eventually get to a color photo of the lichen. If you get one or more results, don't assume the species is right, but it might at least point you to a genus to check out. (I got a lot of "no results" on my searches, but I was just making up characters.)

You might try checking photos at https://www.waysofenlichenment.net/lichens/, which does a good job of showing many species in each genus.

Steve Sharnoff has some lichen basics at http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichen_info/biology.html. Photos available at http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichens/lichens_home_index.html may also be helpful, but this site is focused on North America.

If you narrow it down to a few species, you can check whether they occur in your area at http://lichenportal.org/portal/collections/harvestparams.php, a database maintained by the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH). Their records include specimens from all over the world. If you go to http://lichenportal.org/portal/checklists/dynamicmap.php?interface=key and click on your area (specify a radius to search), they will generate a checklist that you can also use as an interactive key. Very nice!!

Only the lichen portal at CNALH will give you a detailed description of important characters, but at least the others provide visual references.

Posted on January 29, 2019 20:18 by slwhiteco slwhiteco | 0 comments | Leave a comment

January 27, 2019

Colorado Usneas

According to CNALH (at Lichen Portal: Key for Colorado) the following species of Usnea occur in Colorado:
Usnea arizonica
Usnea cavernosa
Usnea glabrata
Usnea hirta
Usnea perplexans = lapponica
Usnea scabrata
Usnea subfloridana

The above link works as a key-- great fun to try out.
(But for entire list of all collected, see * below. I'm guessing this means most others are synonymized at this point, and/or that single specimens are not counted in above list.)

Although it seems most Usnea specimens with abundant apothecia on iNat are IDed as U strigosa, I recalled at least a couple other species that had obvious apothecia. Notably U arizonica. Although it has been collected (once) in Colorado, that collection was in the far southwest of the state, not too far from Arizona. Note also that U intermedia is considered synonymous with this species at CNALH, per note with that species below.

Thus, these first two specimens may be considered duplicates:

Usnea arizonica Motyka
COLO-L-0045841 Roger Rosentreter RR-CO-39 Date: 1977-11-26
United States, Colorado, Hinsdale, San Juan Mountains, Vallecito Creek

Usnea intermedia Jatta

SRP-L-0009176 Roger Rosentreter CO-39 1977-11-26
U.S.A., Colorado, La Plata, Vallecito Creek San Jaun[sic] Mountains, near Durango, CO., 37.5 -107.536003, 2744m

But U strigosa has also been collected once in Colorado:
Usnea strigosa (Ach.) Eaton
370686 Robert S Egan EL-16194 Date: 2003-08-04
United States, Colorado, Larimer, Estes Park: just WNW along US Rte 34, 40.3883333 -105.5575, 2378m

Also, Steve Sharnoff's index for Usnea photographs is a huge help! Ditto for the Usnea photos at Ways of Enlichenment (which also lists synonyms)! Thanks!!



It's not clear to me how CNALH is handling synonymy. If curious about Usneas in Colorado or elsewhere, I recommend you check them directly by searching in CNALH (lichenportal.org). But here's what I gleaned from their records, to get you started:

arizonica
Not described in CNALH, but according to their link to Encyclopedia of Life: "The Arizona beard lichen or bushy beard lichen, Usnea arizonica, is endemic to the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico, and one of the most common lichen species in that area. It is fruiticose, typically found draped on or attached to the bark of tree branches especially in conifer forests. A light yellowish green in color, it produces many yellow, disc shaped fruiting bodies (apothecia) that are up to 10mm (0.3 inches) across (States 1990; Kleinman No Date)."
Distribution: (per CNALH), abundant collections in AZ, NM, TX, CA; rare (and possibly dubious?) specimens from CT, PA, NC, OK, OR, MT, ID, FL.

cavernosa
Apothecia: very rare
Substrate and ecology: on bark, rarely on wood, in mountains in moist habitats between 2000 and
3300 m
World distribution: Eurasia and North America; long pendulous Usneas in Colorado will probably be this one; U longissima is not reported.

filipendula = dasypoga/dasopoga?
substrate: bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs.
Collected 3 times in Colorado

florida
Apothecia: 2-12 mm in diam., terminal and lateral
Substrate and ecology: mainly on bark of Pinus spp. and Quercus spp. in pine-oak forests, between 1800 and 2550 m
World distribution: Europe, Taiwan, and Mexico
Collected in Colorado: USA, Colorado, Douglas, Devil's Head Campground, ca. 20 mi. SW of Sedalia; Pike National Forest; Rampart Range; Bryological Foray, 39.266667 -105.1, 2682m

fulvoreagens
Apothecia: not seen
Substrate and ecology: mainly on bark of Quercus spp. in low forests on exposed ridges or on shrubs in the chaparral between 200 and 500 m
World distribution: Europe, western and eastern North America

glabrata
Substrate and ecology: on bark of Quercus spp. and Pinus spp., and diverse scrubs in the chaparral or low oak and pine forests, between 0 and 500 m
World distribution: circumpolar in boreal, temperate and Mediterranean regions of the Northern Hemisphere

glabrescens
Apothecia: apparently reported, 5 mm in diameter
Substrate: bark—trunks, branches, twigs
World distribution: Europe, North America, Arctic
Collected 11 times in Colorado, at least 6 counties

hirta
Apothecia: rare, small, 1-3 mm in diam., subterminal
Substrate and ecology: on bark and dead trees or wood, very rarely on rock, in the mountains between 650 and 3600 m
World distribution: probably cosmopolitan on every continent

intermedia
Apothecia: 2-13 mm in diam., terminal, subterminal or lateral
Substrate and ecology: on bark rarely on wood or rock, mainly on Quercus spp., Pinus spp., and Pseudotsuga in mixed conifer forests or pine-oak-fir forests or Douglas fir forests or in the spruce fir zone, between 1800 and 2900 m
World distribution: Europe and western North America
Notes: There are no visible differences between the western North American (U. arizonica, U. retifera) and the European specimens (U. intermedia), and therefore they are considered here as conspecific.

lapponica
Apothecia: not seen
Substrate and ecology: on bark, especially on Abies spp., Pinus spp., Picea spp, and Quercus spp., usually in mixed conifer forests, between 2300 and 3400 m
World distribution: holarctic, mainly in continental areas

parvula (apparently not in Colo?; but occurs in Mexico)

perplexans = lapponica (search gives list of 527 specimens, mostly lapponica)
Apothecia: not seen
Substrate and ecology: on bark, especially on Abies spp., Pinus spp., Picea spp, and Quercus spp.,
usually in mixed conifer forests, between 2300 and 3400 m
World distribution: holarctic, mainly in continental areas

sorediifera
Apothecia: not seen
Substrate and ecology: on bark, especially on Abies spp., Pinus spp., Picea spp, and Quercus spp., usually in mixed conifer forests, between 2300 and 3400 m
World distribution: holarctic, mainly in continental areas

subfloridana
Apothecia: not seen
Substrate and ecology: on bark (especially Quercus spp.), rarely on wood, coastal, mainly on in small oak forests or on diverse shrubs in the chaparral between 200 and 500 m or inland in the mountains on Quercus spp. and Pinus spp. between 1500 and 2800 m
World distribution: Eurasia, Macronesia, and North America

substerilis
Apothecia: not seen
Substrate and ecology: on bark (mainly Quercus spp., Pseudotsuga spp., Pinus spp., Abies spp., Picea spp.) mainly in montane forests between 1900 and 3300 m, rarely coastal in Quercus woodland
between 600 and 800 m
World distribution: circumpolar, mainly in continental areas


  • List of Usnea species collected in Colorado, including synonyms(?):
    USNEA CIRROSA
    Usnea
    Usnea arizonica
    Usnea barbata
    Usnea barbata var. hirta
    Usnea cavernosa
    Usnea diplotypus
    Usnea filipendula
    Usnea florida
    Usnea fulvoreagens
    Usnea glabrata
    Usnea glabrescens
    Usnea glabrescens subsp. glabrella
    Usnea hawaiiensis
    Usnea hirta
    Usnea hirta var. minutissima
    Usnea intermedia
    Usnea lapponica
    Usnea rubicunda
    Usnea scabrata
    Usnea sorediifera
    Usnea strigosa
    Usnea stuppea
    Usnea subfloridana
    Usnea substerilis
    Usnea trichodea
    Usnea tristis

Posted on January 27, 2019 17:01 by slwhiteco slwhiteco | 1 comment | Leave a comment

January 20, 2019

Xantho- and Flavo- Parmelias

Trying to avoid guessing about the saxicolous yellow-green parmelias, for the most part, especially from photos, with no chemistry available. Looks like it's going to be important to check the underside on these.

See Xanthos at http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichensH/lichens15_index.html
Descriptions below are from CNALH: lichenportal.org

I tend to assume the common ones on siliceous rock in Colorado foothills are usually X cumberlandia (esp with its abundant apothecia), but here are a few more:

Flavoparmelia caperata
lower surface black in center, brown at edges; sorediate, no isidia; apothecia rare; rarely on rocks

Thallus: adnate to loosely adnate, foliose, 5-20 cm in diam., sometimes forming extensive patches, irregularly lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 5-13 mm wide, contiguous to somewhat imbricate; apices rotund, crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow green to pale yellow, occasionally green-gray (in shade), smooth but becoming rugose and folded with age, dull to somewhat shiny; epruinose and emaculate soredia: laminal, granular to wart-like, initially in circular soralia but becoming diffuse and confluent; isidia: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black centrally, brown and naked peripherally; rhizines: dense to sparse centrally to edge of brown zone, black, simple, sometime brown or white tipped Apothecia: rare, up to 8 mm wide, laminal, sessile; disc: brown; margin: smooth but sorediate sometimes asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: simple, ellipsoid, hyaline, 15-24 x 8-13 µm Pycnidia: laminal, immersed conidia: weakly bifusiform, 6 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P+ red
Substrate and ecology: on broad leafed trees, shrubs and fence posts in open habitats, coastal to montane up to 2000m, rarely on rocks
World distribution: North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa

Flavoparmelia baltimorensis:
lower surface black or dark, rhizinate; isidioid pustulae; apo rare

Thallus: adnate to loosely adnate, foliose, 6-15 cm in diam., often fusing to cover large areas, irregularly lobate lobes: sublinear to irregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 3-8 mm wide; apices: subrotund, crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow-green, smooth but becoming rugose with age, dull to somewhat shiny, epruinose and emaculate pustulae: abundant, laminal crateriform, isidioid, breaking open apically but not sorediate; true isidia and soredia absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black centrally and toward margin, narrow brown zone peripherally, smooth to papillate; rhizines: sparse to moderately abundant, black, simple Apothecia: rare, laminal on thallus, sessile, 1-4 mm wide; disc: brown; margin: pustulate, pruina and soredia absent asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: simple, ellipsoid, hyaline, 13-15 x 6-7 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P+ red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid; medulla with protocetraric acid (major) and gyrophoric acid (minor to accessory). Substrate and ecology: commonly on acidic rock, rarely tree bases World distribution: eastern and SW North America

Xanthoparmelia cumberlandia
lower surface pale brown to brown; no soredia or isidia; apothecia common

Thallus: foliose, adnate, 6-12 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: primarily subirregular, less often sublinear, elongate, plane, 0.1-0.5 mm wide, separate, usually continguous, less often partially imbricate, 1-2 mm wide, sometimes becoming lobulate centrally lobulae: flat, entire, often branched; apices: subrotund, smooth to crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow-green to sometimes bluish green, smooth, shiny, epruinose and emaculate, without isidia, soralia or pustulae medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: pale brown or brown, plane, moderately rhizinate; rhizines: pale brown, simple, 0.3-0.8 mm long Apothecia: common, substipitate, 2-10 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown; margin:smooth, pruina absent asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 9-10 x 4-5 µm Pycnidia: common, immersed conidia: bifusiform, 5-7 x 0.5 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow to orange, C-, KC-, P+ orange; medulla K+ yellow becoming dark red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with stictic acid (major) and constictic and norstictic acids (both minor) and connorstictic, cryptostictic and peristictic acids (all trace). Substrate and ecology: usually on acidic rocks but in coastal areas on soil and/or pebbles as well, often in open or partially shaded habitats World distribution: Europe, North and South America

Xanthoparmelia lineola:
lower surface pale to med brown, rhizinate; no soredia or isidia; apo common

Thallus: foliose, adnate, 4-20 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate and contiguous, 0.8-3 mm wide, not lobulate; apices: subrotund, smooth to crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow to yellow-green, smooth but becoming strongly rugose with age, dull to slightly shiny, epruinose and emaculate, without soralia, isidia, or pustulae medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: pale to medium brown, plane, moderately rhizinate; rhizines: brown, simple, 0.2-0.4 mm long Apothecia: common, substipitate, 2-5 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown; margin: smooth, pruina absent asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 9-12 x 6-7 µm Pycnidia: common, immersed conidia: bifusiform, 6-7 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow becoming dark red, C-, KC-, P+ red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with salazinic acid (major) and consalazinic acid (minor) and often with norstictic and protocetraric acids (both trace). Substrate and ecology: on acidic rocks, often in open or partially shaded habitats World distribution: Australasia, southern Africa and North and South America

Xanthoparmelia conspersa: (X plittii is similar)
lower surface black; apo rare; densely isidiate

Thallus: foliose, adnate to loosely adnate, 4-12 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, often black rimmed, separate, contiguous to somewhat imbricate, (0.5-)1-3 mm wide, rarely lobulate; apices: subrotund to subtruncate, smooth to crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow-green, smooth, shiny, epruinose and emaculate, moderately to densely isidiate isidia: initially globose, soon becoming cylindrical, simple to coralloid branched, 0.06-0.2 mm in diam., 0.1-1 mm tall; tips: syncorticate, dull brown to black; soralia and pustulae absent medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, plane, moderately to densely rhizinate; rhizines: black, simple to furcate, 0.2-0.6 mm long Apothecia: rare, substipitate, 2-8 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown, epruinose; margin isidiate asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 9-10 x 5-6 µm Pycnidia: rare, immersed conidia: bifusiform, 6-7 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow to orange, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with stictic acid (major), constictic, cryptostictic and norstictic acids (all minor), connorstictic acid (trace), and sometimes hyposalazinic acid (trace). Substrate and ecology: on acidic rocks, rarely on wood, often in open, arid habitats but also in more shaded, forested habitats World distribution: Europe, Africa, North and South America

Xanthoparmelia novomexicana
lower surface pale to med brown, rhizinate; upper becoming rugose but no soredia or isidia; apo common

Thallus: foliose, moderately to loosely adnate, (2-)4-20 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: subirregular to sublinear, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate and contiguous, 0.8-3 mm wide, not lobulate; apices: subrotund to subtruncate, smooth to crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow to yellow-green, smooth but becoming strongly rugose with age, dull to slightly shiny, epruinose and emaculate, without soralia, isidia, or pustulae medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: pale to medium brown, plane, moderately rhizinate; rhizines: pale brown, simple, 0.1-0.3 mm long Apothecia: common, substipitate, 2-5 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown; margin: smooth, pruina absent asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 10-11 x 4-5 µm Pycnidia: common, immersed conidia: bifusiform, 5-6 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P+ red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with fumarprotocetraric acid (major), protocetraric acid (minor), confumarprotocetraric acid (minor), ±caperatic acid (major), ±norcaperatic acid (minor). Substrate and ecology: on acidic rocks, often in open or partially shaded habitats World distribution: montane areas of western North America extending south to Veracruz

Posted on January 20, 2019 14:45 by slwhiteco slwhiteco | 3 comments | Leave a comment

December 02, 2018

More lichen resources for ID

I'll be updating this as I find new items helpful.

List of lichen keys at Mycology.net (most of these are for specific taxa and/or geographic locations):
http://www.mycology.net/Content/MNetGroupContent.cfm?MID=133&GID=141

Catalog of the Colorado Flora: a Biodiversity Baseline
Lichens: Weber and Wittmann, electronic version 11-Mar-00
https://www.colorado.edu/cumuseum/sites/default/files/attached-files/lichens.pdf

Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH): searchable databases, checklists by area, etc. This is a major aid, with images of herbarium specimens, most georeferenced.
Generate checklists by area and taxon: http://lichenportal.org/portal/checklists/dynamicmap.php?interface=checklist
Searching at CNALH: http://lichenportal.org/portal/collections/harvestparams.php

New York State Museum Lichen collections: http://www.nysm.nysed.gov/research-collections/biology/botany-mycology/collections (info at http://lichenportal.org/portal/collections/misc/collprofiles.php?collid=81)

Research checklist/keys for Florida: http://lichenportal.org/portal/projects/index.php?proj=509
Colorado lichen checklist/keys: http://lichenportal.org/portal/projects/index.php?proj=510

Field-oriented keys to Florida Lichens; Florida Museum of Natural History; Rosenstreter
https://www.floridamuseum.ufl.edu/herbarium/lib/pdf/Rosentreter_Field_oriented_keys_to_the_Florida_lichens_Dec_2015.pdf

Steve Sharnoff, Lichen reference photos, index pages: http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichens/lichens_home_index.html

Posted on December 02, 2018 14:45 by slwhiteco slwhiteco | 0 comments | Leave a comment

December 01, 2018

Notes on Lichens: difference b/t Xanthoria and Caloplaca

To refresh my memory (and get some updates)

So basically, Xanthoria have a lower cortex and thus are considered foliose; Caloplaca lack lower cortex and are considered crustose. However, both can be lobed, especially at margins, so this is tricky. "Deeper orange" in note below, is bordering on red at times.

Even worse, looks like new genera have been created in both Xanthoria and Caloplaca (see Polycaulionia, Xanthocarpa, Calogaya). Good grief.

  1. See Sharnoff photos for reference: http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichens/lichens2_index.html (Caloplaca updates) and http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichensH/lichens15_index.html (Xanthoria updates)
  2. From CNALH: http://lichenportal.org/portal/taxa/index.php?taxon=56384

"Notes: The thallus morphology of this species is most similar to X. sorediata, but X. elegans never produces soredia. Xanthoria elegans could also be confused with some taxa in Caloplaca, such as C. saxicola and C. trachyphylla. They share several characters, such as ellipsoid conidia and being apotheciate and non-sorediate. Xanthoria elegans, however, always have a lower cortex, where occasional hapters that attaches the thallus to the substrate are found. Rarely, X. elegans has been confused with X. parietina, as they both are apotheciate and have large thalli diameters compared to other taxa in Xanthoria. They differ by the morphology of the lobes, however, with X. elegans having narrower lobes that are convex and more tightly adnate, and lack the marginal border of X. parietina. In addition, the upper cortex of X. elegans is usually deeper orange pigmented. "

  1. Rusavskia elegans (Link) S. Y. Kondr. & Kärnefelt is new name, redirected from: Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr.)
  2. Gets worse yet: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4124130?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents (Am J Bot. 2003 Jul;90(7):1095-103. doi: 10.3732/ajb.90.7.1095. Phylogenetic study of Fulgensia and allied Caloplaca and Xanthoria species (Teloschistaceae...)
    "The traditional generic-level classification schemes for the family Teloschistaceae appear to be highly artificial. All three genera [Fulgensia, Xanthoria, and Caloplaca] were found to be nonmonophyletic."

Posted on December 01, 2018 16:54 by slwhiteco slwhiteco | 0 comments | Leave a comment

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