Journal archives for December 2022

December 01, 2022

Liliaceae and Melanthiaceae: geophytes present in California but not South Africa

South Africa is extraordinarily rich in geophytes, belonging to a bewildering array of families and genera.

However, these exclude two families of geophytes important in California, where the climates are similar to those of Western Cape province.

I refer to Liliaceae and Melanthiaceae.

Liliaceae

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=14&taxon_id=47328&view=species

Calochortus

tunicated bulbs (some spp. lack bulbs)

Calochortus catalinae https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64411-Calochortus-catalinae

chaparral

Fritillaria

bulb of one or more fleshy scales, with or without rice-grain bulblets

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=14&taxon_id=50619&view=species

Fritillaria biflora https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56793-Fritillaria-biflora
bulb 1.5-2 cm diam., of a few fleshy scales

Fritillaria affinis https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56793-Fritillaria-biflora
bulb of a few scales, and many 'rice-grain' bulblets

Lilium

scaly bulbs or scaly rootstocks

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=14&taxon_id=48928&view=species

Lilium humboldtii https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/59575-Lilium-humboldtii
bulbs ovoid, oblique 0.5-1.5 cm long

Melanthiaceae

https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=14&taxon_id=49464&view=species
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=14&taxon_id=49650&view=species

Toxicoscordion fremontii https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/49649-Toxicoscordion-fremontii
bulb 3-6 cm long
chaparral

Toxicoscordion venenosum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/59087-Toxicoscordion-venenosum
tunicated bulb

Posted on December 01, 2022 05:48 AM by milewski milewski | 1 comment | Leave a comment

Geophytes and other tuberous plants in woodland of Eucalyptus wandoo in southwestern Australia

The southwestern region of Western Australia, with its mediterranean-type climate, is generally flat, and nutrient-poor.

The land surface is ancient, with the most extensive laterite (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laterite and https://bsssjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1960.tb01080.x and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229564960_Laterites_and_lateritic_soils_in_South-West_Australia) of any land on Earth at temperate latitudes.

However, there is a minor 'scarp' east of Perth, called the Darling Range (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darling_Scarp), in association with which some of the slopes are steep enough for the lateritic profile to have been partly eroded (https://www.foxeslair.org/why-are-wa-plants-and-soils-unique.html).

This has slightly rejuvenated the otherwise senile substrates, allowing a limited occurrence of small, herbaceous plants otherwise unable to compete with the sclerophyllous shrubs typical of the exceptionally phosphorus-poor laterite and siliceous sand (https://www.academia.edu/7565234/Ecology_of_Australia_the_effects_of_nutrient_poor_soils_and_intense_fires).

On the slightly nutrient-rejuvenated substrates, the vegetation includes woodland of Eucalyptus wandoo (https://heartlandjourneys.com.au/about-us/ancient-wonderland/wandoo/ and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/145451-Eucalyptus-wandoo and https://exploreparks.dbca.wa.gov.au/park/wandoo-national-park). The substrate is typically sandy loam over kaolinitic clay.

In this Post, I have compiled a list of the geoohytes in one study area of wandoo woodland, based on a report written for Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd. Perth (1985) Worsley Alumina Project, Flora and fauna studies, phase two. 348 pp.

I took trouble to distinguish between

  • true geophytes,
  • members of the same genera that do not qualify as geophytes, and
  • tuberous plants, of different genera, that do not qualify as geophytes.

GEOPHYTES:

Colchicaceae:

Burchardia multiflora https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/773427-Burchardia-multiflora
in gulley

Wurmbea dioica https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/504086-Wurmbea-dioica
in gully

Wurmbea tenella https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/925387-Wurmbea-tenella
on ridge

Asphodelaceae:

Caesia parviflora https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323895-Caesia-parviflora

Chamaescilla corymbosa https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/194766-Chamaescilla-corymbosa and http://esperancewildflowers.blogspot.com/2010/06/chamaescilla-corymbosa-var-corymbosa.html
in gully

Tricoryne humilis https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/574684-Tricoryne-humilis

Asparagaceae:

Dichopogon capillipes https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511227-Dichopogon-capillipes
on ridge

Sowerbaea laxiflora https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/205058-Sowerbaea-laxiflora
in gully

Thysanotus patersonii https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323937-Thysanotus-patersonii

Hypoxidaceae:

Pauridia occidentalis https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1062098-Pauridia-occidentalis
in gully

Orchidaceae (partial list):

Caladenia sericea

Cyrtostylis reniformis https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323904-Cyrtostylis-reniformis
in gulley

Pterostylis vittata

Amaranthaceae:

Ptilotus manglesii https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/202127-Ptilotus-manglesii
tuberous taproot

Apiaceae:

Eryngium pinnatifidum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511205-Eryngium-pinnatifidum
tuberous taproot
in gulley

Stylidiaceae:

Stylidium petiolare https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1071381-Stylidium-petiolare
ovoid corm, 0.15 cm diam.

Asteraceae:

Lagenophora huegelii https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511242-Lagenophora-huegelii
numerous root-tubers

Trichocline spathulata https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/896463-Trichocline-spathulata
adventitious root-tubers

TUBEROUS but apparently not geophytic:

Thysanotus tenellus https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/862769-Thysanotus-tenellus
root-tuberous

Thysanotus thyrsoideus https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/859182-Thysanotus-thyrsoideus and https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/1357

Droseraceae:

Drosera gigantea https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/739940-Drosera-gigantea
in gully, where seasonally wet
tubers of diam. up to 3.8 cm, as deep as 1 m

Drosera menziesii https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/148225-Drosera-menziesii
seasonally moist and swamp margins

Drosera pallida https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511323-Drosera-pallida

NOT GEOPHYTIC/TUBEROUS, despite belonging to the genera/families containing geophytes:

Haemodorum laxum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1143491-Haemodorum-laxum

Platysace juncea https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1004702-Platysace-juncea
(tuberous taproot, but hemicryptophyte instead of geophyte)

Drosera leucoblasta https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/929602-Drosera-leucoblasta

Stylidium amoenum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/145399-Stylidium-amoenum
Stylidium affine https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/145501-Stylidium-affine
Stylidium caricifolium (not usually geophytic although possessing numerous root-tubers)
Stylidium dichotomum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/145686-Stylidium-dichotomum
Stylidium diversifolium https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/145694-Stylidium-diversifolium
Stylidium junceum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/565082-Stylidium-junceum
Stylidium piliferum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567801-Stylidium-piliferum
Stylidium schoenoides https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/145502-Stylidium-schoenoides
Stylidium uniflorum https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/554214-Stylidium-uniflorum

Craspedia uniflora https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/401147-Craspedia-uniflora
(adventitious root-tubers, in gully)

Pelargonium littorale https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/735460-Pelargonium-littorale
(not tuberous)

Oxalis corniculata https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53168-Oxalis-corniculata
(not tuberous)

Clematis pubescens https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/145426-Clematis-pubescens
root-tuberous, but foliage perennial

Tuberous with no possibility of geophytic affinity:

Macrozamia riedlei https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/135854-Macrozamia-riedlei

Posted on December 01, 2022 10:54 PM by milewski milewski | 7 comments | Leave a comment

December 02, 2022

The possible adaptive value of high eyes and ears in the grey rhebok (Pelea capreolus)

@tandala @capracornelius @oviscanadensis_connerties

The eyes and ear pinnae of ungulates vary in placement, according to habitat and anti-predator strategy.

In the case of the eyes, there is variation in how far to the sides, and how high on the head, they are placed.

In the case of the ear pinnae, there is variation in how high on the head they are placed, and in how they are oriented (upright, sideways, or downwards).

EYES:

An extreme example of lateral placement of the eyes is the pronghorn (Antiocapra americana):

https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-pronghorn-antilocapra-americana-custer-state-park-south-dakota-usa-28993678.html?imageid=0AC99725-2644-403B-BF25-AEF9B643F1EA&p=37611&pn=1&searchId=ae1a50e771f1a64227bbdc57a0f91ee7&searchtype=0
https://henrysforkwildlifealliance.org/2020/08/yellowstone-pronghorn-restoring-ancient-paths/
https://www.sdakotabirds.com/non_birds/photos/pronghorn_3.jpg

The opposite extreme is Myotragus balearicus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myotragus), which evolved on small islands, virtually free of predators:

https://www.flickr.com/photos/_quagga/9347938461
https://twitter.com/rvosa/status/1344341993019891715
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Myotragus_balearicus-IPMQ.jpg
https://twitter.com/whiterabbit36/status/1261265545640509441
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Myotragus_craneo.jpg

Turning to the placement of the eyes high on the head:

A peculiar example is Hippopotamus amphibius (https://www.alamy.com/stock-image-large-hippo-submerged-in-the-water-with-eyes-out-of-water-murchison-161607662.html). The extinct Hippopotamus gorgops was even more specialised (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippopotamus_gorgops and https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-ccb534bcef45b220dac7df5f5ad0842a-c).

However, there is a similar configuration in warthogs (Phacochoerus spp., https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/122030537), which are the suiforms with the least affinity for water.

Warthogs live on land, but have a short neck and legs (https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-african-wildlife-warthog-image6861013), and kneel while foraging (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/69736745). Thus, they risk not spotting danger above the grass.

https://www.dreamstime.com/warthog-phacochoerus-africanus-standing-long-grass-backlit-shades-orange-sunset-kruger-national-park-south-africa-image150292482
https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fat-warthog-standing-dry-grass-looking-173319410
https://www.dreamstime.com/warthog-standing-high-grass-savanna-image228148526
https://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-image-warthog-piglet-standing-dry-grass-image16998956
https://www.dreamstime.com/warthog-phacochoerus-aethiopicus-adult-standing-grass-masai-mara-park-kenya-image195794593
https://www.dreamstime.com/warthog-phacohoerus-aethiopicus-mokala-national-park-south-africa-warthog-image245349340
https://www.dreamstime.com/warthog-natural-habitat-south-africa-warthog-phacochoerus-africanus-standing-natural-habitat-south-africa-image114919100
https://www.dreamstime.com/warthog-sturdy-hogs-not-world-s-most-aesthetically-pleasing-animals-image224162902
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/84424825

In their own way, warthogs are unique in having the eyes placed above the 'horns' (https://www.dreamstime.com/common-warthog-stands-grass-eyeing-camera-image163837674).

EAR PINNAE:

Among wild spp., an extreme example of low placement is Syncerus, in which the ear pinnae are shaded by the horns:

https://kidadl.com/facts/animals/cape-buffalo-facts
https://www.mediastorehouse.com.au/nature-picture-library/2019-december-highlights/cape-buffalo-syncerus-caffer-caffer-portrait-19737490.html
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/60/African_buffalo_%28Syncerus_caffer_caffer%29_juvenile_head.jpg

However, the most extreme species is a domestic one, viz. Bos indicus:

https://es.123rf.com/photo_13793828_portrait-of-zebu-cow-thailand.html

In large bovines, the function of the ear pinnae seems to be for thermoregulation as much as hearing (see https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/56414-beneficially-bloodshot-from-birds-to-buffaloes#).

APPLYING THIS FRAMEWORK TO GREY RHEBOK:

The grey rhebok (Pelea capreolus) emerges as having

  • possibly the most upright ear pinnae of any ungulate,
  • unusually - albeit not extremely - high-placed eyes, and
  • eyes as laterally-placed as in any bovid.

Please see https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/141682810 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/27859437.

How can the combination of high eyes and extremely upright ear pinnae in the grey rhebok be explained, in terms of adaptation?

It is true that the habitat of the grey rhebok is generally open, with low vegetation (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/11230875). This would seem to make high placement/orientation of the sense-organs redundant.

Furthermore, the grey rhebok partly coexists with Damaliscus pygargus pygargus (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/11168935), one of the most conspicuous of bovids, presumably in adaptation to open environments.

However, an apparent paradox is that the grey rhebok - in complete contrast to D. p. pygargus - has extremely inconspicuous (cryptic) colouration (https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/39938-an-easily-overlooked-but-extreme-adaptation-in-the-grey-rhebok and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/100092810).

This is partly explained by the facts that the grey rhebok

The combination of features peculiar to the grey rhebok can be summarised as follows, relative to reedbucks.

The eyes are as high on the head, and as laterally placed, as in Redunca fulvorufula.

Compare grey rhebok (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/113747554 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/110031488) with R. fulvorufula (https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-female-mountain-reedbuck-redunca-fulvorufula-mountain-zebra-national-20458753.html).

However, the eyes are not as high-placed as in Redunca arundinum (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/1242315 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20172544 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9867856 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/132955519 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19794658 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/15068371) and possibly Redunca redunca (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/1747700 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/131115200).

The ear pinnae are far more upright in the grey rhebok than in any species of reedbuck.

Compare grey rhebok (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/115575407 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/104752672) with R. arundinum (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/86379206 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/37605492) and R. redunca (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/14309608 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9944725).

I suggest that this peculiar combination is consistent with the habitats and behaviour peculiar to the grey rhebok. Whereas reedbucks tend to be adapted to the tall grass of seasonal marshes, the grey rhebok is dually adapted to mature fynbos and short vegetation.

Also see https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/53474-a-comparison-of-adaptive-colouration-between-lookalikes-grey-rhebok-and-mountain-reedbuck#

Posted on December 02, 2022 09:48 PM by milewski milewski | 12 comments | Leave a comment

December 03, 2022

Geophytes (excluding Orchidaceae) in the region of Sydney, Australia

Any naturalist familiar with the region of Cape Town, South Africa, would find biological affinity with the region of Sydney, Australia.

Both locations lie at the same latitude (33.9 degrees South), and have extensive substrates of sandstone (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_sandstone and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_Mountain_Sandstone).

In both cases, the vegetation on sandstone slopes contains many spp. of fire-prone Proteaceae and Ericaceae. In ravines and at the coast, there are small patches of fire-free forest/thicket, containing shared genera including Podocarpus, Celtis, Diospyros, Maytenus, Elaeodendrum, Myrsine, Cryptocarya, and Cynanchum.

In view of these affinities, I was curious about the similarities and differences in the floras of geophytes (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229550396_An_overview_of_the_Cape_geophytes), excluding orchids.

Juncaginaceae:

The genus Triglochin contains geophytes, including species or subspecies restricted to South Africa (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77107744-1 and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46734319_Revision_of_the_Mediterranean_and_southern_African_Triglochin_bulbosa_complex_Juncaginaceae and https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77172374-1 and https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/77107743-1). A widespread species (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79438-Triglochin-striata), occurring in the Sydney region, may qualify as a rhizomatous geophyte, despite its halophytic and aquatic affinities.

Asphodelaceae:

Bulbine is shared between southern Africa and Australia (https://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Bulbine?setskin=pbs_greenish and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulbine). It contains several geophytic spp. in the Cape Town region
(https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?place_id=6987&taxon_id=72021&view=species).

Bulbine bulbosa (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/516738-Bulbine-bulbosa) has edible tubers, and certainly qualifies as a geophyte (pers. obs.; John Jessop, pers. comm. https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/John_Peter_Jessop). However, its tubers are confusingly described as roots, bulbs, or corms. Another species indigenous to the Sydney region (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/504014-Bulbine-glauca) is not necessarily geophytic.

Asparagaceae:

Geophytic: Thysanotus tuberosus (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/122043-Thysanotus-tuberosus and https://apps.lucidcentral.org/plants_se_nsw/text/entities/thysanotus_tuberosus_subsp._tuberosus.htm and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thysanotus_tuberosus and https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Thysanotus~tuberosus and https://www.yarraranges.vic.gov.au/PlantDirectory/Lilies-Irises/Thysanotus-tuberosus-ssp.-tuberosus)
Not geophytic: Thysanotus juncifolius (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353956-Thysanotus-juncifolius and https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Thysanotus~juncifolius and http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?form=speciesfacts&name=Thysanotus_juncifolius and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thysanotus_juncifolius)
Thysanotus virgatus is probably not geophytic. It is described as geophytic in https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:542243-1, but as having perennial stems in https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/862772-Thysanotus-virgatus
and https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Thysanotus~virgatus
https://apps.lucidcentral.org/plants_se_nsw/text/entities/thysanotus_virgatus.htm and https://bie.ala.org.au/species/https://id.biodiversity.org.au/node/apni/2897903#gallery.
Not geophytic: Thysanotus manglesianus (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567742-Thysanotus-manglesianus)

probably geophytic https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/522233-Arthropodium-milleflorum and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1138706-Arthropodium-strictum and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1138705-Arthropodium-fimbriatum and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/557457-Arthropodium-minus

Caesia parviflora https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323895-Caesia-parviflora
Caesia calliantha https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353967-Caesia-calliantha

The genus Sowerbaea contains geophytes with root-tubers. However, the only species occurring in the Sydney region, viz. Sowerbaea juncea (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/515898-Sowerbaea-juncea), is described as having fibrous roots and being restricted to 'wet soil'. I infer that it is probably not geophytic.

Colchicaceae:

Burchardia umbellifera (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/83628-Burchardia-umbellata) is root-tuberous, and qualifies as geophytic.

Wurmbea dioica https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/504086-Wurmbea-dioica
Wurmbea biglandulosa https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/554065-Wurmbea-biglandulosa

Amaryllidaceae:

There is a rich flora of geophytic Amaryllidaceae in the region of Cape Town.
However, the only genus shared with the Sydney region is Crinum.

Cape Town https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/429305-Crinum-macowanii and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/135361-Crinum-moorei

Sydney https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/135370-Crinum-pedunculatum

However, the species in the Sydney region is specialised for wet ground. It may therefore not strictly qualify as geophytic, given that geophytes are defined as fully terrestrial cryptophytes.

Araceae:

In the Araceae, the only species indigenous to the Sydney region that qualifies as geophytic is Typhonium brownii (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/534383-Typhonium-brownii)

Alocasia brisbanensis (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/126965-Alocasia-brisbanensis) is too aquatic to qualify as geophytic.

Gymnostachys anceps (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/534357-Gymnostachys-anceps) has 'tuberous roots', but does not qualify as geophytic, because its above-ground parts do not die down to ground level seasonally.

Iridaceae:

In the region of Cape Town, there is a bewildering proliferation of geophytic Iridaceae. This family is indigenous to the Sydney region, but the incidence of geophytes could not be more different.

The most speciose genus here, namely Patersonia, is evergreen. So are Libertia paniculata (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/417785-Libertia-paniculata) and Libertia pulchella (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323421-Libertia-pulchella).

Dioscoreaceae:

Dioscorea is tuberous but apparently not geophytic. The species indigenous to the Sydney region is Dioscorea hastifolia (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/370127-Dioscorea-transversa).

Haemodoraceae:

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/864482-Haemodorum-planifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/960016-Haemodorum-corymbosum

Hypoxidaceae:

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/321134-Hypoxis-hygrometrica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/748411-Pauridia-glabella

Oxalidaceae:

Oxalis corniculata ('bulb absent') is the only indigenous member of this genus in this region. It is not geophytic.

Ranunculaceae:

Clematis has woody stems. I infer that it does not qualify as a geophyte, even if it is tuberous.

Ranunculus: some spp. tend to be aquatic, or restricted to damp ground.

Euphorbiaceae:

The genus Euphorbia includes geophytes (https://www.euphorbia-international.org/journal/pdf_files/EW6-1-sample.pdf and https://www.biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.307.2.5 and https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Habitat-and-morphological-features-of-the-geophytic-Euphorbia-samples-collected-from-10_tbl2_325839822 and https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Inflorescence-features-of-geophytic-Euphorbia-species-collected-from-nine-localities-in_fig3_325839822 and https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00837792.2018.1476207 and https://www.jstor.org/stable/4109908). However, the two spp. recorded in the Sydney region, namely Euphorbia drummondii and Euphorbia sparrmannii, are not geophytic.

Fabaceae:

Glycine clandestina (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/321122-Glycine-clandestina) and Glycine tabacina (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/369513-Glycine-tabacina) are both indigenous. This genus has potential for the geophytic growth-form, but neither species seems to qualify.

Campanulaceae:

In the Cape Floristic Region, the genus Wahlenbergia contains at least two rhizomatous spp. (suffruticosa and subulata, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235652480_A_new_species_of_Wahlenbergia_from_Western_Cape_South_Africa) that are potentially geophytic. This genus is indigenous to the Sydney region, where e.g. Wahlenbergia stricta (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/131651-Wahlenbergia-stricta) is described as possessing 'tubers', and Wahlenbergia capillaris (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/916652-Wahlenbergia-capillaris) is described as possessing a 'thickened taproot'. Both spp. are potentially geophytic.

Asteraceae:

The widespread genus Lagenophora contains geophytes (https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:117539-3 and https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:117632-3) and has been described as 'stoloniferous' (https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=gn&name=Lagenophora). The spp. occurring in the Sydney region, viz. Lagenophora stipitata (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323152-Lagenophora-stipitata), Lagenoohora sublyrata (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1094266-Lagenophora-sublyrata), and
Lagenophora brachyglossa (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1377729-Lagenophora-brachyglossa), are potentially geophytic.

Microseris walteri (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1132139-Microseris-walteri) is well-known for its edible root-tubers. I assume that it qualifies as a geophyte.

Convolvulaceae:

Convolvulus is known to possess rhizomes. However, the above-ground stems tend to be woody. I assume that the spp. indigenous to the Sydney region, viz. https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/526700-Convolvulus-angustissimus and
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/210190-Convolvulus-erubescens, are not geophytic.

DISCUSSION

For naturalists familiar with the region of Cape Town, it may seem more appropriate to focus on the region of Perth (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perth). This is because Perth lies on a western coast, and resembles Cape Town in having a mediterranean-type climate.

However, the climates of Cape Town and Perth (32 degrees South) differ considerably, because

  • these locations differ in latitude by two degrees, and
  • the marine currents west of the coasts are cold (bringing fog) in the case of Cape Town vs warm (bringing thunderstorms) in the case of Perth.

Furthermore, all parts of Australia with mediterranean-type climates (including South Australia) have so little topographic relief that any ecological comparison with the Cape Peninsula is limited.

It is perhaps for these reasons that there is, overall, as much botanical similarity between the region of Cape Town and the region of Sydney as there is between the region of Cape Town and the regions of Perth or Adelaide.

Despite the tropical influences on the climate at Perth, the flora completely lacks certain tropical elements that reach Cape Town, in families and genera such as Ebenaceae, Apocynaceae, Sapotaceae, Metteniusaceae, and Rubiaceae.

With respect to geophytes, the tropical affinity can be seen in the occurrence of Amaryllidaceae and Araceae in the Sydney region. These families have not naturally penetrated the mediterranean-type climate in Western Australia.

Crinum occurs on alluvial landforms in the Murray Valley, and in the Flinders Range (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flinders_Ranges), both in South Australia (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/548270-Crinum-flaccidum). Both locations are marginal to the mediterranean-type climate. In Western Australia, the closest approach by Crinum to the mediterranean-type climate is near Carnarvon (https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/1491).

According to the Flora of Australia, Crinum in semi-arid Australia has a bulb of diameter 7-10 cm, and is restricted to 'wet places'. It occurs on clay flats in botomlands, where water tends to accumulate. However, in mesic tropical Western Australia (the Kimberley region, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kimberley_(Western_Australia)) Crinum often occurs where the parent rock is sandstone (according to labels in the Western Australian Herbarium).

In northern Western Australia, with rainy summers and dry winters, the amaryllidaceous geophyte Proiphys (formerly called Eurycles alba) occurs on bauxitic duricrust (J S Beard, pers. comm.), as well as clay over basalt (specimen labels in Western Australian Herbarium).

Posted on December 03, 2022 11:08 AM by milewski milewski | 22 comments | Leave a comment

December 05, 2022

The Australian Nullarbor, bare alike of trees and geophytes - save Wurmbea, a pure floristic link with South Africa

@arthur_chapman @tonyrebelo @jeremygilmore @botaneek @troos @benjamin_walton @sedgesrock @bushbandit @reiner @adriaan_grobler @yvettevanwijk1941 @rion_c @richardgill @ellurasanctuary @russellcumming

The Nullarbor Plain (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nullarbor_Plain) of southern Australia is named after its virtual treelessness.

This is an area about as large as England and Scotland combined.

This treelessness is particularly anomalous by comparison with the Great Western Woodlands (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Western_Woodlands), which border the Nullarbor on its western side. These eucalypt-dominated woodlands constitute the tallest broadscale vegetation in a semi-arid climate, anywhere on Earth.

Although a few small trees of Acacia (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/369486-Acacia-oswaldii), Pittosporum (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/349255-Pittosporum-angustifolium), and Alectryon (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/783975-Alectryon-oleifolius) encroach marginally on the Nullarbor Plain, eucalypts are remarkably absent.

The odd treelessness of the Nullarbor Plain is well-known. However, what has previously been overlooked is that this is also a 'desert' for an inconspicuous growth-form category that is, in a sense, the antithesis of trees, namely geophytes (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/geophyte).

The only geophytes recorded from the Nullarbor Plain are Wurmbea dioica (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/504086-Wurmbea-dioica) and possibly Wumbea tenella (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/925387-Wurmbea-tenella) (Reference: McKenzie N L and Robinson A C (1987) A biological survey of the Nullarbor region, South and Western Australia, in 1984. CALM, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, NP&WS, SAust. 413 pp.).

(Wurmbea, which belongs to Colchicaceae, happens to be one of the few cormous geophytes in Australia.)

This poverty of geophytes contrasts strongly with the exceptional richness of geophytes in the Little Karoo of South Africa (https://www.oneearth.org/ecoregions/succulent-karoo-xeric-shrublands/), which has a similar climate.

What makes this comparison all the more intriguing is that the sole genus of geophytes present on the Nullarbor Plain is also the most unqualified example of a floristic link between Australia and southern Africa.

Naturalists familiar with the southern continents will know that 'gondwanan' elements such as Proteaceae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteaceae) and Restionaceae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restionaceae) are shared between Australia and South Africa (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2007.01757.x).

However, such links are easily exaggerated. This is because

  • some of the families and virtually all of the genera differ between continents, in the most closely-matched types of fire-prone vegetation (kwongan vs fynbos),
  • Myrtaceae are dominant in Australia but virtually absent in relevant environments in South Africa,
  • the degrees of sclerophylly and other biological specialisations to poor soils and intense fires are greater in Australia than in South Africa, even within Proteaceae,
  • Ericaceae are surprisingly different in the form of the foliage and fruits,
  • under semi-arid climates, there is a nearly categorical difference in the incidence of non-halophytic succulents, and
  • geophytes show remarkably little similarity in floristic composition or growth-form (emphasising Orchidaceae in Australia vs Iridaceae in South Africa).

Wurmbea is one of the few clear exceptions to the above, because

Elaborating the last point:

In Western Australia, Wurmbea tends to be associated with 'granite exposures' (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granite_outcrops_of_Western_Australia#:~:text=Granite%20outcrops%20of%20Western%20Australia%20are%20weathered%20landforms%20that%20occur,inselbergs%2C%20castle%20koppies%20and%20nubbins. and https://heartlandjourneys.com.au/about-us/ancient-wonderland/life-on-granite-outcrops/ and https://www.rswa.org.au/publications/Journal/83(3)/v83(3)withers.pdf and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228584618_Overview_of_granite_outcrops_in_Western_Australia).

These environments are somewhat rejuvenated with nutrients, because of fresh weathering of the bedrock. Furthermore, the occurrence of bare sheets of rock provides some protection from the regime of intense wildfires that otherwise affects the entire landscape.

What this means is that, unlike most elements of the flora of southern Australia, Wurmbea is not particularly adapted to poor soils or intense fires. It is specialised for seasonal dormancy, but this can be seen as an adaptation mainly to the dry summers - which particularly desiccate the shallow soils on the aprons of granite outcrops.

In the southwestern Cape of South Africa, Wurmbea has a similar adaptive profile.

An association with granite is less noticeable, because granite is less widespread than in southwestern Australia, and does not form similar outcrops. However, Wurmbea likewise occurs mainly on soils of moderate status w.r.t. nutrients, and in vegetation not particularly subject to wildfire. Examples of its habitats include disturbed ground or seasonally wet depressions in renosterveld.

The above may help to explain the occurrence of Wurmbea on the Nullarbor Plain.

The soils here, derived from limestone, are neither rich nor particularly poor in nutrients. The vegetation is not free of wildfires, but the fire regime is mild because the dominant plants (particularly the amaranthaceous Maireana sedifolia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maireana_sedifolia) do not have flammable foliage.

One way of explaining the floristic link of Wurmbea between Australia and South Africa, therefore, is to see this genus as 'interstitial'. It characterises moderate environments, evading the ecological hegemonies imposed by kwongan and eucalypts in Australia, and fynbos and succulent karoo in South Africa.

By virtue of this lack of specialisation, the fortuitous restriction - which is poorly-described as 'gondwanan' although we lack a better adjective - of Wurmbea to two southern landmasses has peeked through. And this includes an environment - the Nullarbor Plain - where no other geophyte has prevailed.

Posted on December 05, 2022 05:52 AM by milewski milewski | 12 comments | Leave a comment

Oxalis in Australia and southern Africa

In Australia, Oxalis is an unremarkable herbaceous plant. Perhaps its most remarkable aspect is the tendency for any given indigenous species to occur also in New Zealand, or perhaps South Africa, or even South America.

That is to say, the plants are in themselves unremarkable in their ecological nature, but what is remarkable is the blurring of the distinction between indigenous and introduced.

However, in southern Africa the same genus has evolved in a remarkable way, related to a regime of disturbance of the earth by animals. Here, many spp. of Oxalis bear true bulbs.

Bulbs (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulb) are associated mainly with monocotyledonous plants. Oxalis is exceptional among dicotylodonous plants in having independently evolved bulbs.

Furthermore, the bulbs of southern African spp. of Oxalis have two major functions, viz.

  • being disseminated by disturbance, in which they act as 'vegetative seeds', and
  • serving as underground storage organs that allow adoption of a geophytic growth-form.

With the development of the geophytic growth-form, there has been a proliferation of species in South Africa, particularly under the mediterranean-type climate, that parallels the geophytic proliferation of various monocotyledonous families, e.g. Iridaceae.

The result is that the indigenous spp. of Oxalis in South Africa outnumber those in Australia 40-fold - and under mediterranean-type climates more than 100-fold.

The seed-like function of the 'aerial bulbils' of Oxalis have proven so efficient that they have greatly exacerbated the biogeographical blurring among landmasses. Various spp. of Oxalis, indigenous to southern Africa, have become cosmopolitan weeds, or have anthropogenically invaded similar climates in Australia in particular.

The result is that, perhaps more than any other lineage of plants, the South African spp. of Oxalis have come to represent a paradoxical duality. They combines exceptional local restriction in their original state with exceptional intercontinental spread in their anthropogenic state.

And - returning to the Australian occurrence of Oxalis - this leaves unanswered the puzzle of how those spp. lacking bulbils managed to spread 'naturally' among the southern continents in the first place.

AUSTRALIA:

https://www.castlemaineflora.org.au/pic/o/oxali/oxper.htm

https://www.utas.edu.au/dicotkey/dicotkey/OTHERS/sOxalis_perennans.htm

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57865-Oxalis-exilis

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323276-Oxalis-magellanica

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353869-Oxalis-chnoodes

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/69934-Oxalis-radicosa

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353867-Oxalis-rubens

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/404428-Oxalis-thompsoniae

SOUTH AFRICA:

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53169-Oxalis-pes-caprae
geophytic

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78301-Oxalis-purpurea
presumably geophytic

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/120434-Oxalis-compressa

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119242-Oxalis-luteola

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/165991-Oxalis-hirta

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/361074-Oxalis-caprina

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119764-Oxalis-flava

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591296-Oxalis-truncatula

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119470-Oxalis-glabra
geophytic

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/566867-Oxalis-ciliaris

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591292-Oxalis-tenuifolia

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61776-Oxalis-incarnata

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528599-Oxalis-depressa

Posted on December 05, 2022 08:22 PM by milewski milewski | 8 comments | Leave a comment

December 06, 2022

Under the mediterranean-type climate, amaryllid geophytes are absent from Western Australia despite being typical in Chile, speciose in California, and diverse in South Africa

INTRODUCTION

Geophytes are defined as terrestrial perennial plants of which the above-ground parts die down to ground level each year. All cryptophytes possess hidden storage organs, and geophytes are those cryptophytes other than aquatic plants or those inhabiting permanently wet ground.

The widespread family Amaryllidaceae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amaryllidaceae), which now includes Alliaceae, is mainly geophytic.

Amaryllids (https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-03533-7_11)

  • include some of the most spectacular and useful geophytes on Earth, and
  • are more specialised for bulbs (as opposed to rhizomes, corms or other stem-tubers) than are other geophytic monocotyledonous families.

The geophytic growth-form (see https://cnps.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/FremontiaV44.3.pdf) is effectively drought-deciduous. Thus, it seems particularly suited to the mediterranean-type climate, defined as having dry summers and rainy winters.

Given the above facts, it is unremarkable that various amaryllid geophytes occur under the mediterranean-type climate on various continents.

It is equally unremarkable that the local floras of amaryllidaceous geophytes are different. Only one genus is shared among the mediterranean-type climates of Chile, California, or South Africa. This is Allium, which has many spp. in California and one in South Africa.

However, what is remarkable is that (in order of most to least surprising)

RESULTS

Please see all the relevant genera, listed below. The most anomalous finding is the lack of any representatives in western Australia.

In California, the only indigenous genus is Allium, which in Eurasia has produced the domestic onion, chives, scallion, shallot, leek, and garlic.

I am unsure whether any species of Crinum qualifies as a geophyte. This is because this genus is associated with wet ground.

DISCUSSION

The single most powerful factor in the environment, for explaining the ecological distribution of amaryllid geophytes, is nutrient-richness, particularly the concentration of available phosphorus and zinc in the topsoil.

Wildfire is involved in this framework, because nutrient-poor soils tend to have flammable vegetation, dependent on fire for nutrient-cycling via ash.

The relationship between amaryllids and the fertility of soils helps to explain why this is the only family of monocotyledonous plants that has been agriculturally successful, as domesticated food-crops (particularly six spp. of Allium, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium).

Of all the regions of mediterranean-type climate on Earth, that in Chile is the nutrient-richest and the least fire-prone. It can thus be seen as a 'standard' for the incidence of amaryllid geophytes, which are represented here by 11 genera.

Soils in California are nutrient-rich on alluvia, but somewhat impoverished (or imbalanced in the case of serpentine soils) elsewhere. The many spp. of Allium here cover a wide range of environments, including the Central Valley (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/59784-Allium-serra). I know of no species with any particular relationship to wildfire.

In the small region of South Africa that has the climate in question, soils are divided between nutrient-poor (on sandstone, quartzite, and deep sand) and moderately nutrient-rich (on shale and slate). Amaryllid geophytes here are associated mainly with relatively nutrient-rich soils and vegetation somewhat protected from wildfire.

However, a few species, particularly of Cyrtanthus, show a clear relationship to fire (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583402-Cyrtanthus-ventricosus).

Please see https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Role-of-Fossorial-Animals-in-Community-Structure-of-Cox-Contreras/efa737f295adbfae1412a6b599a9514fcc031121 and https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4612-2490-7_16.

In Chile, the subterranean rodent Spalacopus cyanus (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/45913-Spalacopus-cyanus) specialises on Leucocoryne (https://academic.oup.com/jmammal/article-abstract/51/3/592/832037?redirectedFrom=fulltext&login=false and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/367272-Leucocoryne-ixioides and http://rchn.biologiachile.cl/pdfs/1993/3/Contreras_1993.pdf).

In California, the subterranean rodent Thomomys bottae eats Allium, but only as a small part of a diet that includes greens and roots.

In South Africa, the mole-rats Georychus capensis (https://academic.oup.com/mspecies/article/doi/10.1644/799.1/2600528?login=false) and Cryptomys hottentotus specialise on the tubers of geophytes. However, amaryllids do not feature prominently in their diets. In this region, the large rodent Hystrix africaeaustralia (https://ielc.libguides.com/sdzg/factsheets/cape-porcupine) - which has no counterparts in the relevant regions on other continents- may be as important as mole-rats in the consumption of the bulbs of amaryllids.

CHILE

LEUCOCORYNE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucocoryne
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilliesieae#:~:text=Gilliesieae%20is%20a%20tribe%20of,as%20a%20subfamily%20or%20tribe.

PHYCELLA (formerly Rhodophiala)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phycella
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:194546-2
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:66595-1

ZEPHYRANTHES
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zephyranthes
https://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/zephyranthes
https://www.ornamentalbreeding.nl/FOB_6(SI1)129-139o.pdf

GILLIESIA
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77183077-1

TRISTAGMA
https://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Tristagma
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:258948-2

NOTHOSCORDUM
https://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Nothoscordum
https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/1381
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:130726-3

RHODOLIRIUM
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:20011344-1
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:20011344-1/images

MIERSIA
https://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Miersia
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:538320-1
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351850606_Miersia_putaendensis_sp_nov_Gilliesieae_Amaryllidaceae_a_new_species_endemic_to_Central_Chile

TRAUBIA
https://www.pacificbulbsociety.org/pbswiki/index.php/Traubia
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:256509-2
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traubiinae

PAPPOSOA
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77210018-1
https://chileanendemics.rbge.org.uk/taxa/paposoa-laeta-phil-nic-garc%C3%ADa

LATACE
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77151813-1
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287995257_The_reinstatement_of_Latace_Phil_Amaryllidaceae_Allioideae

CALIFORNIA

ALLIUM
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75340-Allium-campanulatum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_munzii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579573-Allium-dregeanum

SOUTH AFRICA

ALLIUM
https://pza.sanbi.org/allium-synnotii#:~:text=Allium%20synnotii%20is%20the%20only,(Christenhusz%20et%20al%202017).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_dregeanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579573-Allium-dregeanum

BRUNSVIGIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunsvigia

HAEMANTHUS (in part)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemanthus

AMARYLLIS
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61827-Amaryllis-belladonna

CROSSYNE
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/367438-Crossyne-guttata
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossyne

NERINE (in part)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nerine

SCADOXUS
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/153154-Scadoxus-puniceus

GETHYLLIS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gethyllis

BRUNSVIGIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunsvigia

CYRTANTHUS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrtanthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583402-Cyrtanthus-ventricosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583363-Cyrtanthus-carneus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583383-Cyrtanthus-leucanthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/474292-Cyrtanthus-angustifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583371-Cyrtanthus-fergusoniae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583365-Cyrtanthus-collinus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583391-Cyrtanthus-odorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/482833-Cyrtanthus-mackenii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1396579-Cyrtanthus-novus-annus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/436175-Cyrtanthus-sanguineus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583375-Cyrtanthus-guthrieae

STRUMARIA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strumaria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/559988-Strumaria-spiralis

HESSEA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hessea

CRINUM
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/135361-Crinum-moorei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/429305-Crinum-macowanii

AMMOCHARIS (is this really geophytic?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/361683-Ammocharis-longifolia

Apodolirion does not reach the mediterranean-type climate

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Calostemma
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calostemma
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calostemma_purpureum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/548271-Calostemma-luteum

Crinum marginally present (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/548270-Crinum-flaccidum)

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

NIL

Posted on December 06, 2022 02:04 AM by milewski milewski | 20 comments | Leave a comment

December 09, 2022

Plasticfruits, part 4: the case of Chenopodium (Amaranthaceae)

@tonyrebelo @jeremygilmore @michaelcincotta @alan_dandie @bushbandit @beth393 @iancastle @convallaria1128 @pieterwinter @george_seagull @ellurasanctuary @jjudy @cinclosoma @arthur_chapman @botaneek @troos @benjamin_walton @adriaan_grobler @adrianfigueroa @russellcumming

...continued from https://www.inaturalist.org/posts/62307-plasticfruits-part-3-thymelaeaceae#

Imagine that you are a naturalist living in a coastal suburb in Australia.

This morning, you take a walk along the beachfront, absent-mindedly noticing an indigenous shrub, a 'berry saltbush', in red fruit (https://www.jungledragon.com/specie/14993/seaberry_saltbush.html) by the pathside.

This is such a common sight, from Western Australia to New South Wales, that you pay scant attention.

Furthermore, you are not naive enough to be tempted to nibble the fruits.

Later in the day, you sit down to a salad of quinoa (https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/122848-Chenopodium-quinoa) seeds and lettuce.

And, understandably, it is unlikely to occur to you that berry saltbushes and quinoa belong to the same genus: Chenopodium (Amaranthaceae).

About seven spp. of berry saltbushes have small, flattish, but succulent and conspicuous fruits, adapted for seed-dispersal by birds. These look moderately appetising, but few naturalists who have ever tried them will repeat the experience (please see the first comment below).

In quinoa, by contrast, the fruits, not being fleshy, are tantamount simply to seeds. Who would suspect that this wholesome food-plant could belong to the same genus as berry saltbushes?

And yet this is indeed the case.

This kind of evolutionary plasticity, within genera, is surprisingly common in a wide range of plants.

The nature of flowers is so phylogenetically consistent that plants are classified, to genus level, mainly by their flowers. However, the fruits seem to have an adaptive 'mind of their own', in many and various genera.

At a glance, both berry saltbushes and quinoa show reddish reproductive structures (Chenopodium quinoa: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/17041609 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/13982334 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/115010634 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/113982778 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/62895411 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/62895411).

However, in the case of quinoa, these are inflorescences, as opposed to the fleshy fruits of berry saltbushes.

The dichotomy between fleshy and non-fleshy fruits can be seen even within Australia, in the indigenous spp. of Chenopodium.

Several spp., mainly herbaceous and occurring mainly in the semi-arid interior, have fruits similar to those of quinoa (http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?form=speciesfacts&name=Chenopodium). Were it not the case that quinoa has already been domesticated (in the Andes of Peru), these might be suitable candidates for similar selective breeding as a food-crop.

The variation in the form of the fruits, within Chenopodium, revolves around the remarkable plasticity of both the perianth and the pericarp.

The perianth plays at least three roles in various spp. of Chenopodium indigenous to Australia, viz.

  • reduced to the point of irrelevance, in most of the spp. with fleshy (red) fruits, dispersed by birds, all of which are shrubs,
  • persistent as a hardly-noticeable papery covering around the tiny dry fruit, in the case of several spp. of annuals (e.g. Chenopodium murale, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenopodiastrum_murale), and
  • persistent as a conspicuous cup-like base for the fleshy fruit, in which the red, glossy inner (= upper) surfaces of the tepals complement the bright hue of the fruit, which dries through orange to yellow (Chenopodium curvispicatum).

For its part, the pericarp takes at least four forms, viz.

The following further illustrate Chenopodium curvispicatum: https://www.ellura.info/Plant/Saltbush/DSC04724N-Cottony-Saltbush-Chenopodium-curvispicatum.html and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/946897-Chenopodium-curvispicatum and http://www.flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?form=speciesfacts&name=Chenopodium_curvispicatum and https://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/scotia/key/Plants%20and%20Fungi%20of%20south%20western%20NSW/Media/Html/Chenopodium_curvispicatum.htm and https://bie.ala.org.au/species/https://id.biodiversity.org.au/node/apni/2909397.

The following are the spp. of Chenopodium, indigenous to Australia, with red fleshy fruits in which the perianth is irrelevant, and the succulent pericarp encircles the seed, rather than spherically enclosing it. These are the various 'berry saltbushes'.

Chenopodium baccatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511299-Chenopodium-baccatum

Chenopodium candolleanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323862-Rhagodia-candolleana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/972975-Chenopodium-candolleanum
https://vro.agriculture.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/sip_seaberry_saltbush
https://bie.ala.org.au/species/https://id.biodiversity.org.au/node/apni/2891216

Chenopodium spinescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/627162-Rhagodia-spinescens
https://vro.agriculture.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/water_sss_thorny_saltbush
https://apps.lucidcentral.org/plants_se_nsw/text/entities/rhagodia_spinescens.htm
http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?form=speciesfacts&name=Rhagodia_spinescens

Chenopodium preissii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/416363-Rhagodia-preissii
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77228601-1

Chenopodium wilsonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1047741-Chenopodium-wilsonii

Chenopodium parabolicum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenopodium_parabolicum
https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Rhagodia~parabolica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/502259-Chenopodium-parabolicum
http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?form=speciesfacts&name=Rhagodia_parabolica
https://www.jungledragon.com/specie/22968/fragrant_saltbush.html
https://www.facebook.com/FriendsofMerriCreek/posts/3902222359855620/?paipv=0&eav=AfZjBpBZClgUeUE5UxyqK0TUO7IZd-V2YI98xL_aRBWFJHo2nHFAzeBknRIA32Ua7X4&_rdr
https://powo.science.kew.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77117834-1

Chenopodium gaudichaudianum
http://syzygium.xyz/saplants/Chenopodiaceae/Chenopodium/Chenopodium_gaudichaudianum.html

Posted on December 09, 2022 03:41 AM by milewski milewski | 32 comments | Leave a comment

December 10, 2022

How convergent are perennial daisies in mediterranean-type climates? part 1

INTRODUCTION

Mediterranean-type climates have warm, dry summers and cool, rainy winters (e.g. https://en.climate-data.org/north-america/united-states-of-america/california/sacramento-1460/).

Such climates occur in isolation on several continents (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean_climate#:~:text=A%20Mediterranean%20climate%20%2F%CB%8Cm,climate%20type%20is%20most%20common.).

According to ecological and evolutionary principles, organisms can be expected to produce similar forms and functions in similar environments, regardless of their phylogenetic origins.

On this basis, plants are predicted to be adapted to mediterranean-type climates in similar ways, in the various floras of the world.

One of the best families for testing this prediction is daisies (Asteraceae, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteraceae).

This is because daisies

  • are particularly dispersible by wind, owing to the typical, anemochorous (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed_dispersal) nature of their fruits,
  • have proven to be particularly adaptable, with extreme phylogenetic plasticity, on oceanic islands beyond the reach of other families of plants, and
  • are the only family known to encompass the full range from succulent leaves to hard, dry, lignified leaves (sclerophylly), from geophytes to trees, and from aquatic to desertic specialisation.

In other words, daisies are exceptionally widespread and adaptable.

Because of the dispersibility of daisies, the chances are that any local ecological patterns are not merely the result of accidents of evolutionary history, phylogenetic constraints, or the isolation of landmasses. I.e. in the case of daisies, any regional differences, within the category of mediterranean-type climates, are likely to show real ecological differences.

So, is it true that the daisies in the various regions of mediterranean-type climate are approximate 'mirror-images' of each other?

LISTS OF THE DAISIES IN THE VARIOUS REGIONS

Many daisies are annual (and adapted to semi-desert or disturbed ground). I have excluded these from this study, because there are so many perennial daisies under mediterranean-type climates that, were annuals to be included,

  • the lists would be unmanageably large, and
  • the patterns of adaptation would be obscured rather than clarified.

For example, many of the spp. of daisies indigenous to California are annual and/or restricted to the semi-arid to arid climate, and thus excluded from this study.

The following shows the various genera and spp. of perennial daisies in the various regions, based on observations in iNaturalist.

A problem in compiling these lists has been that many genera include both perennial and annual/biennial spp.

In several cases, I have suspected that a given species is annual/biennial, which would be disqualifying in this series of Posts. I have marked these with the designation 'Annual?' In such cases, dear readers, please help to refine these Posts by giving me your verdicts.

California is anomalous, in that the mediterranean-type climate extends to beyond 45 degrees of latitude. In Chile and Australia, the comparative value is 37 degrees. South African readers can visualise the latitudinal difference between 45 and 37 degrees as equivalent to the distance from Pretoria to Port Elizabeth.

In view of this anomaly, I have excluded the daisies in northernmost California and southern Oregon.

CHILE

Acrisione
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/790913-Acrisione-denticulata

Ageratina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/509342-Ageratina-glechonophylla

Archidasyphyllum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1241356-Archidasyphyllum-diacanthoides (stem-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1241357-Archidasyphyllum-excelsum (stem-spinescent)

Aristeguietia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/715331-Aristeguietia-salvia

Baccharis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/716801-Baccharis-concava
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/630561-Baccharis-linearis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/861001-Baccharis-macraei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/866831-Baccharis-paniculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/874161-Baccharis-racemosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/905030-Baccharis-rhomboidalis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/606718-Baccharis-sagittalis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1254224-Baccharis-vernalis

Bahia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/557705-Bahia-ambrosioides

Chaetanthera (see https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/11538/1/Davies_Alison.pdf)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/871675-Chaetanthera-chilensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/873742-Chaetanthera-glandulosa

Chaptalia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/556727-Chaptalia-exscapa

Chuquiraga
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/636301-Chuquiraga-oppositifolia

Encelia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/335463-Encelia-canescens

Flourensia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/563825-Flourensia-thurifera

Gochnatia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/852104-Gochnatia-foliolosa

Gutierrezia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/948568-Gutierrezia-resinosa

Haplopappus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/705287-Haplopappus-foliosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1062524-Haplopappus-chrysanthemifolius

Leucheria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1063326-Leucheria-hieracioides

Micropsis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1064316-Micropsis-nana

Mikania
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/874461-Mikania-mendocina

Moscharia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793686-Moscharia-pinnatifida

Mutisia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/747521-Mutisia-acerosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/794132-Mutisia-ilicifolia (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/429196-Mutisia-spinosa (foliar-spinescent?)
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/746906-Mutisia-subulata

Noticastrum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/855068-Noticastrum-sericeum

Ophryosporus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/973718-Ophryosporus-paradoxus

Plectocephalus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/910426-Plectocephalus-chilensis

Podanthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/623453-Podanthus-ovatifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/715313-Podanthus-mitiqui

Polyachyrus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/563543-Polyachyrus-poeppigii

Proustia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/716497-Proustia-pyrifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/484839-Proustia-cuneifolia

Pseudognaphalium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/935223-Pseudognaphalium-viravira

Senecio
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569080-Senecio-adenotrichius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/909782-Senecio-bahioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/888397-Senecio-nigrescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/805181-Senecio-poeppigii

Spinoliva
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1263919-Spinoliva-ilicifolia (foliar-spinescent?)

Tessaria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/71230-Tessaria-absinthioides

Triptilion
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793682-Triptilion-capillatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793683-Triptilion-cordifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793684-Triptilion-gibbosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/793685-Triptilion-spinosum (foliar-spinescent)

CALIFORNIA

Note: in cases where unstated in https://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_index.php?index=E whether perennial or not, I have assumed perennial; 'possibly' refers to spp.

  • occurring at altitudes so high (>2000 m a.s.l.) that the climate may not qualify as mediterranean-type, or
  • typical of the semi-arid climate and penetrating the mediterranean-type climate perhaps only with anthropogenic disturbance.

Achillea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52821-Achillea-millefolium

Achyranthemum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/950256-Achyranthemum-mucronatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/950255-Achyranthemum-paniculatum

Acourtia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64115-Acourtia-microcephala

Adenocaulon
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56854-Adenocaulon-bicolor

Ageratina
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75300-Ageratina-occidentalis

Agnorhiza
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893767-Agnorhiza-bolanderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893765-Agnorhiza-elata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893764-Agnorhiza-invenusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893763-Agnorhiza-ovata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/893761-Agnorhiza-reticulata

Agoseris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58801-Agoseris-apargioides
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75302-Agoseris-aurantiaca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75303-Agoseris-glauca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52828-Agoseris-grandiflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61169-Agoseris-hirsuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75304-Agoseris-monticola
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57908-Agoseris-retrorsa

Ambrosia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75405-Ambrosia-ambrosioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/71135-Ambrosia-chamissonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75406-Ambrosia-chenopodiifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75407-Ambrosia-confertiflora
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75408-Ambrosia-dumosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75411-Ambrosia-monogyra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60129-Ambrosia-psilostachya
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75412-Ambrosia-pumila
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75413-Ambrosia-salsola

Anaphalis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52833-Anaphalis-margaritacea

Antennaria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53096-Antennaria-rosea

Arnica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75568-Arnica-chamissonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75569-Arnica-cordifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75570-Arnica-dealbata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52851-Arnica-discoidea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75572-Arnica-lanceolata
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75573-Arnica-latifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75574-Arnica-longifolia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75576-Arnica-nevadensis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75578-Arnica-parryi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1106832-Arnica-sonnei

Artemisia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_californica and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53357-Artemisia-californica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/52854-Artemisia-douglasiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60952-Artemisia-pycnocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75598-Artemisia-tridentata

Baccharis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75727-Baccharis-glutinosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53359-Baccharis-pilularis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57913-Baccharis-salicifolia

Bahiopsis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75736-Bahiopsis-laciniata

Balsamorhiza
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62273-Balsamorhiza-careyana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/70383-Balsamorhiza-deltoidea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/69665-Balsamorhiza-macrolepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62266-Balsamorhiza-sagittata

Bebbia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75746-Bebbia-juncea

Brickellia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58803-Brickellia-californica
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75872-Brickellia-desertorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53501-Brickellia-eupatorioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75875-Brickellia-greenei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57919-Brickellia-nevinii

Carlquistia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76131-Carlquistia-muirii

Centromadia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58804-Centromadia-fitchii (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58809-Centromadia-parryi (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64209-Centromadia-pungens (foliar-spinescent?)

Chaenactis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62682-Chaenactis-douglasii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76231-Chaenactis-parishii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76232-Chaenactis-santolinoides

Chrysothamnus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76329-Chrysothamnus-viscidiflorus

Cirsium
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/69971-Cirsium-andersonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55294-Cirsium-andrewsii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76343-Cirsium-arizonicum (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76347-Cirsium-cymosum (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76348-Cirsium-douglasii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56866-Cirsium-fontinale
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76349-Cirsium-hydrophilum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/160614-Cirsium-loncholepis (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76351-Cirsium-mohavense
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60954-Cirsium-quercetorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76355-Cirsium-remotifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76356-Cirsium-rhothophilum (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76357-Cirsium-scariosum (foliar-spinescent)

Corethrogyne
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58014-Corethrogyne-filaginifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/160908-Corethrogyne-leucophylla

Deinandra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58815-Deinandra-clementina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76616-Deinandra-minthornii

Dieteria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76654-Dieteria-asteroides

Eastwoodia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57967-Eastwoodia-elegans

Encelia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64141-Encelia-californica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/49339-Encelia-farinosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57969-Encelia-actoni

Ericameria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/63924-Ericameria-arborescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76879-Ericameria-bloomeri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76880-Ericameria-brachylepis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76881-Ericameria-cooperi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57970-Ericameria-cuneata
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60845-Ericameria-discoidea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60955-Ericameria-ericoides (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76882-Ericameria-fasciculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76885-Ericameria-laricifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57971-Ericameria-linearifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76888-Ericameria-palmeri
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76889-Ericameria-paniculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76890-Ericameria-parishii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76891-Ericameria-parryi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76892-Ericameria-pinifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76893-Ericameria-teretifolia

Erigeron
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76894-Erigeron-aequifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76898-Erigeron-aphanactis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76901-Erigeron-biolettii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76902-Erigeron-blochmaniae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76905-Erigeron-breweri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76914-Erigeron-coulteri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/59752-Erigeron-divergens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76918-Erigeron-filifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57972-Erigeron-foliosus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76920-Erigeron-glacialis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/50878-Erigeron-glaucus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76921-Erigeron-greenei
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76931-Erigeron-multiceps
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76922-Erigeron-inornatus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1390806-Erigeron-palosverdensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76934-Erigeron-parishii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/133922-Erigeron-peregrinus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76935-Erigeron-petrophilus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/67820-Erigeron-philadelphicus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/851881-Erigeron-popayanensis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/162521-Erigeron-pubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76938-Erigeron-reductus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76940-Erigeron-sanctarum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76941-Erigeron-serpentinus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/84732-Erigeron-speciosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76944-Erigeron-supplex

Eriophyllum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53395-Eriophyllum-confertiflorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77048-Eriophyllum-jepsonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77049-Eriophyllum-lanatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77051-Eriophyllum-latilobum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60963-Eriophyllum-staechadifolium

Eucephalus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77094-Eucephalus-breweri

Euthamia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/130989-Euthamia-graminifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58826-Euthamia-occidentalis

Gamochaeta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77224-Gamochaeta-ustulata

Grindelia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56953-Grindelia-camporum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55364-Grindelia-hirsutula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/289540-Grindelia-robusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61992-Grindelia-stricta

Gutierrezia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57978-Gutierrezia-californica
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77311-Gutierrezia-microcephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77312-Gutierrezia-sarothrae

Hazardia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/279762-Hazardia-berberidis (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77340-Hazardia-cana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77341-Hazardia-detonsa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77342-Hazardia-orcuttii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64142-Hazardia-squarrosa (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57981-Hazardia-stenolepis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77343-Hazardia-whitneyi

Helenium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61807-Helenium-bigelovii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77350-Helenium-bolanderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53092-Helenium-puberulum

Helianthella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/59922-Helianthella-californica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64250-Helianthella-castanea

Helianthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56954-Helianthus-californicus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77354-Helianthus-cusickii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77356-Helianthus-gracilentus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/125699-Helianthus-mollis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77358-Helianthus-niveus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77359-Helianthus-nuttallii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/704686-Helianthus-winteri

Heliomeris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77362-Heliomeris-multiflora

Heterotheca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58831-Heterotheca-grandiflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77396-Heterotheca-oregona
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1351310-Heterotheca-orovillosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57988-Heterotheca-sessiliflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77397-Heterotheca-shevockii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77398-Heterotheca-subaxillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77399-Heterotheca-villosa

Hieracium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/63937-Hieracium-albiflorum
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77413-Hieracium-bolanderi
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/163779-Hieracium-fendleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/128234-Hieracium-gronovii

Holocarpha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/62571-Holocarpha-obconica

Hulsea
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77462-Hulsea-brevifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77464-Hulsea-heterochroma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77467-Hulsea-vestita

Hymenoxys
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/49037-Hymenoxys-hoopesii

Isocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/57991-Isocoma-acradenia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77510-Isocoma-arguta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77511-Isocoma-menziesii

Iva
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58837-Iva-axillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77518-Iva-hayesiana

Jaumea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60969-Jaumea-carnosa (succulent halophyte)

Lepidospartum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58010-Lepidospartum-squamatum

Leptosyne
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77709-Leptosyne-gigantea
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coreopsis_maritima

Lessingia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119605-Lessingia-filaginifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77714-Lessingia-nana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77716-Lessingia-ramulosa

Malacothrix
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77936-Malacothrix-incana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77940-Malacothrix-saxatilis

Microseris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78036-Microseris-nutans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60976-Microseris-paludosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78037-Microseris-sylvatica

Oreostemma
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78280-Oreostemma-alpigenum

Packera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78315-Packera-bernardina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78316-Packera-bolanderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56983-Packera-breweri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78317-Packera-cana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78318-Packera-clevelandii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78319-Packera-eurycephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78320-Packera-ganderi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61876-Packera-greenei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78323-Packera-ionophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78324-Packera-layneae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78326-Packera-multilobata

Phalacroseris
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78533-Phalacroseris-bolanderi

Pilosella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1183937-Pilosella-arguta
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/951187-Pilosella-horrida
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/780652-Pilosella-tristis

Pseudognaphalium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58829-Pseudognaphalium-biolettii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53080-Pseudognaphalium-canescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78761-Pseudognaphalium-leucocephalum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78763-Pseudognaphalium-microcephalum
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78765-Pseudognaphalium-thermale

Pyrrocoma
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78795-Pyrrocoma-apargioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78800-Pyrrocoma-racemosa

Rafinesquia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53193-Rafinesquia-californica (fire)

Raillardella
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78812-Raillardella-argentea
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78814-Raillardella-scaposa

Rudbeckia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78896-Rudbeckia-californica

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/53206-Senecio-aronicoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58847-Senecio-astephanus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79042-Senecio-blochmaniae
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79043-Senecio-clarkianus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58036-Senecio-flaccidus
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79045-Senecio-fremontii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64165-Senecio-hydrophilus (aquatic)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79047-Senecio-integerrimus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79049-Senecio-lyonii
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79053-Senecio-scorzonella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/54922-Senecio-serra
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79054-Senecio-spartioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79055-Senecio-triangularis

Solidago
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79149-Solidago-confinis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79150-Solidago-elongata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79151-Solidago-guiradonis
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79152-Solidago-lepida
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79153-Solidago-multiradiata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60978-Solidago-spathulata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79155-Solidago-velutina

Stephanomeria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/169376-Stephanomeria-blairii and https://www.calflora.org/app/taxon?crn=7787
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79213-Stephanomeria-cichoriacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58039-Stephanomeria-exigua
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79215-Stephanomeria-lactucina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79217-Stephanomeria-parryi
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58040-Stephanomeria-pauciflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79218-Stephanomeria-tenuifolia

Symphyotrichum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79294-Symphyotrichum-ascendens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56861-Symphyotrichum-chilense
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79297-Symphyotrichum-defoliatum
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79295-Symphyotrichum-bracteolatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56113-Symphyotrichum-foliaceum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79299-Symphyotrichum-greatae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79301-Symphyotrichum-lanceolatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/129607-Symphyotrichum-laeve
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60130-Symphyotrichum-lentum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79302-Symphyotrichum-spathulatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79303-Symphyotrichum-subspicatum

Tanacetum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/79314-Tanacetum-bipinnatum

Tetraneuris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/132723-Tetraneuris-scaposa

Venegasia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/64109-Venegasia-carpesioides

Wyethia
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/50798-Wyethia-amplexicaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56987-Wyethia-angustifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/50799-Wyethia-helenioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56988-Wyethia-glabra
possibly https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/60843-Wyethia-mollis

SOUTH AFRICA

Achyranthemum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/950255-Achyranthemum-paniculatum

Amellus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579702-Amellus-alternifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579703-Amellus-asteroides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579704-Amellus-capensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579711-Amellus-strigosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579712-Amellus-tenuifolius

Anaxeton
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579808-Anaxeton-arborescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579809-Anaxeton-asperum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579810-Anaxeton-brevipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579811-Anaxeton-ellipticum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579812-Anaxeton-hirsutum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/532775-Anaxeton-laeve
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579813-Anaxeton-lundgrenii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579814-Anaxeton-nycthemerum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/579815-Anaxeton-virgatum

Arctotheca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56024-Arctotheca-calendula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580120-Arctotheca-forbesiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580121-Arctotheca-marginata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/424293-Arctotheca-populifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/75549-Arctotheca-prostrata

Arctotis (see http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0006-82412022000100011 and https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629910001493 and https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/aspt/sb/2022/00000047/00000001/art00003 and https://bioone.org/journals/willdenowia/volume-48/issue-1/wi.48.48103/Nomenclatural-changes-and-typifications-of-Arctotis-species-Asteraceae-Arctotideae-from/10.3372/wi.48.48103.full)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569425-Arctotis-acaulis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580122-Arctotis-acuminata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569427-Arctotis-adpressa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580124-Arctotis-angustifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580127-Arctotis-aspera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580130-Arctotis-bellidifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/861919-Arctotis-breviscapa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580141-Arctotis-flaccida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1136404-Arctotis-formosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580145-Arctotis-incisa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/861909-Arctotis-laciniata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1106475-Arctotis-muricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580151-Arctotis-petiolata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/706337-Arctotis-reptans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580153-Arctotis-revoluta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580155-Arctotis-rotundifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/867538-Arctotis-scabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580156-Arctotis-schlechteri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/158585-Arctotis-stoechadifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580161-Arctotis-subacaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/786088-Arctotis-verbascifolia

Artemisia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/342710-Artemisia-afra

Athanasia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580786-Athanasia-adenantha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580790-Athanasia-calophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580791-Athanasia-capitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580793-Athanasia-crenata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580794-Athanasia-crithmifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580795-Athanasia-cuneifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567825-Athanasia-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580798-Athanasia-flexuosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/743385-Athanasia-gyrosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580800-Athanasia-hirsuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580804-Athanasia-juncea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580805-Athanasia-leptocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580806-Athanasia-linifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580808-Athanasia-microphylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580810-Athanasia-oocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580811-Athanasia-pachycephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580814-Athanasia-pubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580815-Athanasia-quinquedentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580816-Athanasia-rugulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580817-Athanasia-scabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580818-Athanasia-sertulifera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/580819-Athanasia-spathulata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527452-Athanasia-trifurcata

Berkheya
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581051-Berkheya-angusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581053-Berkheya-armata (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581054-Berkheya-barbata (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581062-Berkheya-carlinifolia (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581067-Berkheya-coriacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581074-Berkheya-dregei
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581084-Berkheya-herbacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/159211-Berkheya-heterophylla (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581085-Berkheya-jardineana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581095-Berkheya-onobromoides (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/482821-Berkheya-rigida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533741-Berkheya-spinosa (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581111-Berkheya-tysonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581066-Berkheya-chrysanthemoides (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581113-Berkheya-viscosa

Brachylaena
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567699-Brachylaena-discolor
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570556-Brachylaena-neriifolia

Capelio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581732-Capelio-caledonica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581733-Capelio-tabularis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/581734-Capelio-tomentosa

Cineraria
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582252-Cineraria-alchemilloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1377091-Cineraria-angulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582263-Cineraria-erosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582265-Cineraria-geifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582269-Cineraria-lobata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582271-Cineraria-mollis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582276-Cineraria-platycarpa

Chrysocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524602-Chrysocoma-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/129068-Chrysocoma-coma-aurea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582233-Chrysocoma-esterhuyseniae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582245-Chrysocoma-tridentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582246-Chrysocoma-valida

Corymbium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582809-Corymbium-africanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582810-Corymbium-congestum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582811-Corymbium-cymosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582813-Corymbium-enerve
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582814-Corymbium-glabrum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582815-Corymbium-laxum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/577959-Corymbium-villosum

Cotula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582819-Cotula-andreae
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582823-Cotula-ceniifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/58812-Cotula-coronopifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582825-Cotula-discolor
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582826-Cotula-duckittiae
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582827-Cotula-eckloniana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/190950-Cotula-filifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528766-Cotula-laxa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582832-Cotula-macroglossa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582833-Cotula-melaleuca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582836-Cotula-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/190952-Cotula-myriophylloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582837-Cotula-nigellifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582838-Cotula-nudicaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1119528-Cotula-perennans
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1119530-Cotula-pruinosa
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582843-Cotula-pusilla
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1119686-Cotula-sericea
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582846-Cotula-sororia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/582848-Cotula-tenella

Cullumia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533465-Cullumia-bisulca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567914-Cullumia-carlinoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596620-Cullumia-ciliaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583116-Cullumia-floccosa (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583117-Cullumia-micracantha (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583118-Cullumia-patula (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578726-Cullumia-reticulata (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583121-Cullumia-selago (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/461732-Cullumia-setosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583122-Cullumia-sulcata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567926-Cullumia-squarrosa

Curio https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570733-Curio (foliar-succulent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913201-Curio-acaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913202-Curio-archeri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1269341-Curio-cicatricosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583123-Curio-citriformis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913204-Curio-crassulifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/913212-Curio-radicans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583125-Curio-repens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570734-Curio-talinoides

Dicerothamnus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200662-Dicerothamnus-adpressus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200667-Dicerothamnus-rhinocerotis (particularly flammable)

Didelta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/514256-Didelta-carnosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/532463-Didelta-spinosa

Dimorphotheca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/492559-Dimorphotheca-acutifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583826-Dimorphotheca-chrysanthemifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/566625-Dimorphotheca-cuneata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76660-Dimorphotheca-ecklonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/76661-Dimorphotheca-fruticosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583828-Dimorphotheca-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583833-Dimorphotheca-venusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/583834-Dimorphotheca-walliana

Disparago
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584061-Disparago-anomala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584062-Disparago-ericoides (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/857521-Disparago-gongylodes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/526194-Disparago-kraussii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584063-Disparago-laxifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/857518-Disparago-pilosa

Edmondia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/584361-Edmondia-fasciculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569495-Edmondia-pinifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553427-Edmondia-sesamoides

Eriocephalus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/430981-Eriocephalus-africanus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585312-Eriocephalus-aromaticus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585313-Eriocephalus-brevifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570866-Eriocephalus-capitellatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/467680-Eriocephalus-ericoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585331-Eriocephalus-punctulatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/577563-Eriocephalus-racemosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585336-Eriocephalus-tenuipes

Euryops (several spp. are ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/401791-Euryops-abrotanifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585693-Euryops-brevilobus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585700-Euryops-decipiens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585718-Euryops-hebecarpus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585720-Euryops-imbricatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585721-Euryops-indecorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585724-Euryops-lasiocladus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585725-Euryops-lateriflorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585729-Euryops-linifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585730-Euryops-longipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/84982-Euryops-multifidus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585740-Euryops-othonnoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/347968-Euryops-pectinatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524456-Euryops-rehmannii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585748-Euryops-rupestris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585749-Euryops-serra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585750-Euryops-speciosissimus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585752-Euryops-sulcatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585753-Euryops-tagetoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585754-Euryops-tenuilobus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524455-Euryops-tenuissimus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585755-Euryops-thunbergii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533455-Euryops-virgineus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585762-Euryops-wageneri

Felicia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585802-Felicia-aculeata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585803-Felicia-aethiopica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/146915-Felicia-amelloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570419-Felicia-amoena
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/120049-Felicia-australis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585807-Felicia-bellidioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585812-Felicia-canaliculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585815-Felicia-cymbalariae
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585816-Felicia-cymbalarioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585820-Felicia-dregei
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585821-Felicia-dubia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585822-Felicia-ebracteata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585823-Felicia-echinata (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119565-Felicia-elongata
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585826-Felicia-fascicularis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/401821-Felicia-fruticosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528743-Felicia-filifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585830-Felicia-hirsuta
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585831-Felicia-hirta
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585832-Felicia-hispida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585833-Felicia-hyssopifolia
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585841-Felicia-merxmuelleri
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585844-Felicia-minima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569123-Felicia-muricata
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585847-Felicia-nigrescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/585848-Felicia-nordenstamii

Gazania
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586167-Gazania-ciliaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119582-Gazania-krebsiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586170-Gazania-lanata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586171-Gazania-maritima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884843-Gazania-rigens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/120062-Gazania-rigida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586174-Gazania-serrata
Check https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567911-Gazania-pectinata

Gerbera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586314-Gerbera-crocea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586316-Gerbera-grandis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586317-Gerbera-linnaei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/473244-Gerbera-piloselloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570383-Gerbera-serrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1120668-Gerbera-sinuata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586323-Gerbera-tomentosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586324-Gerbera-wrightii

Gymnodiscus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586666-Gymnodiscus-capillaris

Haplocarpha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586753-Haplocarpha-lanata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586756-Haplocarpha-oocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586757-Haplocarpha-parvifolia

Helichrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586871-Helichrysum-asperum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586873-Helichrysum-aureofolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586877-Helichrysum-bachmannii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586884-Helichrysum-capense
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586885-Helichrysum-catipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586891-Helichrysum-cochleariforme
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586894-Helichrysum-crispum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586895-Helichrysum-cylindriflorum
check that this is perennial https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/342438-Helichrysum-cymosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/545839-Helichrysum-dasyanthum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586901-Helichrysum-diffusum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586911-Helichrysum-excisum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567568-Helichrysum-felinum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/163638-Helichrysum-foetidum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569345-Helichrysum-fruticans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586919-Helichrysum-grandiflorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586923-Helichrysum-hamulosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586926-Helichrysum-hebelepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586927-Helichrysum-helianthemifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586934-Helichrysum-incarnatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586947-Helichrysum-lambertianum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533450-Helichrysum-lancifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570762-Helichrysum-litorale
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586960-Helichrysum-marifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586969-Helichrysum-moeserianum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586980-Helichrysum-niveum
annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586981-Helichrysum-nudifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586984-Helichrysum-odoratissimum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586994-Helichrysum-pandurifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578243-Helichrysum-patulum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/586998-Helichrysum-pentzioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/77361-Helichrysum-petiolare
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587001-Helichrysum-plebeium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587012-Helichrysum-retortum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119485-Helichrysum-revolutum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587013-Helichrysum-rosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587014-Helichrysum-rotundatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578242-Helichrysum-rotundifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/416492-Helichrysum-rutilans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587018-Helichrysum-scabrum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587029-Helichrysum-spiralepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587031-Helichrysum-stellatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587033-Helichrysum-stoloniferum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/426219-Helichrysum-teretifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587043-Helichrysum-tinctum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587047-Helichrysum-tricostatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533449-Helichrysum-zeyheri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587058-Helichrysum-zwartbergense

Hymenolepis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587612-Hymenolepis-calva
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587613-Hymenolepis-crithmifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587615-Hymenolepis-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587617-Hymenolepis-gnidioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587618-Hymenolepis-incisa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587620-Hymenolepis-speciosa

Ifloga
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/601947-Ifloga-ambigua
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587727-Ifloga-anomala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/704313-Ifloga-decumbens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1391564-Ifloga-repens
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/587730-Ifloga-thellungiana

Macledium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589514-Macledium-latifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589516-Macledium-spinosum (foliar-spinescent?)

Mairia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589557-Mairia-burchellii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/566735-Mairia-crenata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589558-Mairia-coriacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/866009-Mairia-lasiocarpa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589561-Mairia-robusta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1377070-Mairia-purpurata

Metalasia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589904-Metalasia-acuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589905-Metalasia-adunca
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589906-Metalasia-agathosmoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589907-Metalasia-albescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589908-Metalasia-alfredii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570690-Metalasia-aurea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589909-Metalasia-bodkinii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589910-Metalasia-brevifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527593-Metalasia-calcicola
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589911-Metalasia-capitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589912-Metalasia-cephalotes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589913-Metalasia-compacta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589914-Metalasia-confusa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589915-Metalasia-cymbifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589916-Metalasia-densa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589917-Metalasia-distans
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589918-Metalasia-divergens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589919-Metalasia-dregeana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589920-Metalasia-eburnea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589921-Metalasia-erectifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589922-Metalasia-erubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589923-Metalasia-fastigiata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589926-Metalasia-helmei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589927-Metalasia-humilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589928-Metalasia-inversa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589929-Metalasia-juniperoides (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589930-Metalasia-lichtensteinii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589932-Metalasia-massonii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589934-Metalasia-muraltiifolia (foliar-spinescent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527592-Metalasia-muricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589937-Metalasia-oligocephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589936-Metalasia-octoflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589939-Metalasia-phillipsii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589940-Metalasia-plicata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589941-Metalasia-pulchella
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567826-Metalasia-pungens (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589945-Metalasia-quinqueflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589946-Metalasia-rhoderoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589947-Metalasia-riparia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589948-Metalasia-rogersii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589949-Metalasia-seriphiifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589950-Metalasia-serrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589951-Metalasia-serrulata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589953-Metalasia-tenuifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589954-Metalasia-tenuis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589958-Metalasia-umbelliformis

Myrovernix
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200663-Myrovernix-glandulosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200665-Myrovernix-gnaphaloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1391558-Myrovernix-intricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200657-Myrovernix-longifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1200666-Myrovernix-scaber

Nidorella (check for annuals)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590626-Nidorella-foetida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590627-Nidorella-hottentotica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847544-Nidorella-ivifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847557-Nidorella-pinnata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847558-Nidorella-pinnatifida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/847556-Nidorella-ulmifolia

Oedera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884775-Oedera-calycina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569864-Oedera-capensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884796-Oedera-corymbosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590713-Oedera-epaleacea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590714-Oedera-foveolata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884800-Oedera-fruticosa (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884766-Oedera-garnotii (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524508-Oedera-genistifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884795-Oedera-humilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567141-Oedera-imbricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884771-Oedera-longipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884772-Oedera-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590717-Oedera-multipunctata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884774-Oedera-pungens (foliar-spinescent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884801-Oedera-relhanioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884799-Oedera-rotundifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590720-Oedera-sedifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590721-Oedera-silicicola
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884797-Oedera-spathulifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884776-Oedera-speciosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524617-Oedera-squarrosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/884798-Oedera-tricephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590723-Oedera-uniflora (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590724-Oedera-viscosa

Oncosiphon
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590774-Oncosiphon-africanus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590778-Oncosiphon-sabulosus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590775-Oncosiphon-grandiflorus

Osmitopsis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590958-Osmitopsis-afra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/447652-Osmitopsis-asteriscoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590959-Osmitopsis-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590960-Osmitopsis-glabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590961-Osmitopsis-nana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590962-Osmitopsis-osmitoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590963-Osmitopsis-parvifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590964-Osmitopsis-pinnatifida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590965-Osmitopsis-tenuis

Osteospermum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61409-Osteospermum-acanthospermum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/61412-Osteospermum-aciphyllum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590971-Osteospermum-australe
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590972-Osteospermum-bidens
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590974-Osteospermum-breviradiatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590976-Osteospermum-calcicola
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/165983-Osteospermum-calendulaceum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590977-Osteospermum-ciliatum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590978-Osteospermum-connatum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590981-Osteospermum-dentatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590985-Osteospermum-grandiflorum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590986-Osteospermum-hafstroemii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590989-Osteospermum-hispidum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590991-Osteospermum-ilicifolium
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590992-Osteospermum-imbricatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596722-Osteospermum-incanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570559-Osteospermum-junceum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/404420-Osteospermum-moniliferum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/590996-Osteospermum-monstrosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591004-Osteospermum-polygaloides
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591008-Osteospermum-rigidum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591010-Osteospermum-rotundifolium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524504-Osteospermum-scariosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591012-Osteospermum-sinuatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591016-Osteospermum-spinosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/527497-Osteospermum-subulatum
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591019-Osteospermum-tomentosum

Othonna (needs further checking for annuals)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591061-Othonna-arborescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591062-Othonna-arbuscula
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528774-Othonna-auriculifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591065-Othonna-bulbosa (geophytic?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591067-Othonna-cacalioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591070-Othonna-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591071-Othonna-coronopifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591073-Othonna-cuneata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/570576-Othonna-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591076-Othonna-digitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1159917-Othonna-globosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528601-Othonna-gymnodiscus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591085-Othonna-hederifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591087-Othonna-heterophylla
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591088-Othonna-humilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591089-Othonna-intermedia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591092-Othonna-leptodactyla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1412294-Othonna-linearifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591095-Othonna-lyrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591100-Othonna-multicaulis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591103-Othonna-oleracea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568344-Othonna-parviflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591110-Othonna-perfoliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591111-Othonna-petiolaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/560261-Othonna-pinnata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1039759-Othonna-pumilio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591117-Othonna-quercifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568345-Othonna-quinquedentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591119-Othonna-ramulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591121-Othonna-retrofracta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591122-Othonna-retrorsa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1041010-Othonna-rotundiloba
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591128-Othonna-spinescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591129-Othonna-stenophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591135-Othonna-undulosa (geophytic?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591136-Othonna-viminea

Petalacte
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/591862-Petalacte-coronata

Phaenocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/514327-Phaenocoma-prolifera

Plecostachys
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592211-Plecostachys-polifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/78625-Plecostachys-serpyllifolia

Polyarrhena
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592318-Polyarrhena-imbricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592320-Polyarrhena-reflexa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592321-Polyarrhena-stricta

Printzia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592461-Printzia-aromatica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568146-Printzia-polifolia

Pteronia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524304-Pteronia-incana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/524365-Pteronia-fasciculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592711-Pteronia-paniculata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592698-Pteronia-hirsuta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592685-Pteronia-divaricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/899719-Pteronia-aspera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592725-Pteronia-uncinata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592722-Pteronia-tenuifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/592709-Pteronia-onobromoides

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594169-Senecio-abbreviatus (foliar-succulent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594175-Senecio-agapetes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594178-Senecio-albifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594180-Senecio-aloides (foliar-succulent?)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/363595-Senecio-angulatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594182-Senecio-angustifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594186-Senecio-arabidifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594187-Senecio-arenarius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594188-Senecio-arniciflorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594195-Senecio-bipinnatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594200-Senecio-bulbinifolius (foliar-succulent)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569496-Senecio-burchellii
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594202-Senecio-cadiscus (semi-aquatic)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/552249-Senecio-canaliculatus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594205-Senecio-cardaminifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594207-Senecio-carroensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594210-Senecio-chrysocoma
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594211-Senecio-cinerascens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594213-Senecio-coleophyllus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594217-Senecio-cordifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/487098-Senecio-crassiusculus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/944862-Senecio-cymbalarifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594238-Senecio-erosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553425-Senecio-erubescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594245-Senecio-foeniculoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/336367-Senecio-glastifolius (https://nre.tas.gov.au/Documents/Hollyleavedsenecio_CRC_wmg.pdf)
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594253-Senecio-glutinosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/336368-Senecio-grandiflorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594256-Senecio-halimifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594258-Senecio-hastatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/567863-Senecio-hastifolius (tuberous)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568317-Senecio-ilicifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/55607-Senecio-inaequidens
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594273-Senecio-incertus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594282-Senecio-junceus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/568096-Senecio-lanceus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594291-Senecio-leptophyllus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594294-Senecio-lineatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594298-Senecio-lycopodioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/327643-Senecio-macroglossus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/464399-Senecio-maritimus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594304-Senecio-matricariifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594323-Senecio-odontopterus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594328-Senecio-paarlensis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594331-Senecio-paniculatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594339-Senecio-pillansii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594341-Senecio-pinifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594342-Senecio-pinnatifidus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/487097-Senecio-pinnulatus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/487096-Senecio-pterophorus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594353-Senecio-purpureus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594352-Senecio-pubigerus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594357-Senecio-rehmannii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594360-Senecio-retortus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594364-Senecio-rigidus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594365-Senecio-robertiifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594366-Senecio-rosmarinifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594367-Senecio-ruwenzoriensis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119544-Senecio-sarcoides (foliar-succulent)
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594378-Senecio-sophioides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594379-Senecio-speciosissimus (https://pza.sanbi.org/senecio-speciosissimus)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569624-Senecio-speciosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594380-Senecio-spiraeifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594383-Senecio-subcanescens
Senecio stella-purpurea (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333855230_A_new_localised_species_of_purple_radiate_Senecio_Asteraceae_Senecioneae_from_the_Sneeuberg_massif_South_Africa)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/363597-Senecio-tamoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594394-Senecio-tortuosus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594404-Senecio-umbellatus
Senecio umbricola https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629908003220
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594408-Senecio-variifolius
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594410-Senecio-verbascifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594411-Senecio-vestitus

Seriphium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/873820-Seriphium-burchellii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594443-Seriphium-incanum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/431651-Seriphium-plumosum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594442-Seriphium-cinereum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594444-Seriphium-saxatilis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594445-Seriphium-spirale

Stoebe
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/569377-Stoebe-aethiopica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/574599-Stoebe-capitata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594840-Stoebe-cyathuloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594841-Stoebe-fusca (ericoid)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594842-Stoebe-gomphrenoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594845-Stoebe-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594847-Stoebe-nervigera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594849-Stoebe-prostrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594850-Stoebe-rosea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594851-Stoebe-rugulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/594852-Stoebe-schultzii

Syncarpha
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595035-Syncarpha-affinis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595037-Syncarpha-argyropsis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/320169-Syncarpha-canescens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595040-Syncarpha-dregeana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595041-Syncarpha-dykei
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/447044-Syncarpha-eximia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595043-Syncarpha-flava
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/471312-Syncarpha-gnaphaloides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595044-Syncarpha-lepidopodium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595045-Syncarpha-loganiana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595046-Syncarpha-marlothii
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/119221-Syncarpha-speciosissima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595051-Syncarpha-staehelina
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595053-Syncarpha-variegata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553430-Syncarpha-vestita
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595054-Syncarpha-virgata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595055-Syncarpha-zeyheri

Tarchonanthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/474039-Tarchonanthus-camphoratus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595129-Tarchonanthus-littoralis

Ursinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595888-Ursinia-abrotanifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595890-Ursinia-anethoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/489478-Ursinia-cakilefolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/574899-Ursinia-caledonica
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595893-Ursinia-calenduliflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595894-Ursinia-chrysanthemoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595895-Ursinia-coronopifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595896-Ursinia-dentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595897-Ursinia-discolor
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595898-Ursinia-dregeana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595899-Ursinia-eckloniana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595900-Ursinia-filipes
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595903-Ursinia-heterodonta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595907-Ursinia-macropoda
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595908-Ursinia-merxmuelleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595911-Ursinia-nudicaulis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595912-Ursinia-oreogena
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595914-Ursinia-pilifera
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595915-Ursinia-pinnata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595916-Ursinia-punctata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595918-Ursinia-quinquepartita
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595919-Ursinia-rigidula
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595921-Ursinia-scariosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595922-Ursinia-sericea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/574150-Ursinia-serrata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/578040-Ursinia-speciosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595923-Ursinia-subflosculosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595924-Ursinia-tenuifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595926-Ursinia-trifida
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/595913-Ursinia-paleacea

Zyrphelis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/972730-Zyrphelis-ciliaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1099478-Zyrphelis-corymbosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596448-Zyrphelis-ecklonis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596450-Zyrphelis-glabra
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596451-Zyrphelis-glandulosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/962293-Zyrphelis-leiocarpa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596456-Zyrphelis-montana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596455-Zyrphelis-microcephala
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596457-Zyrphelis-nervosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596459-Zyrphelis-taxifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/596449-Zyrphelis-foliosa

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Acanthocladium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634496-Acanthocladium-dockeri (stem-spinescent)

Angianthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1089581-Angianthus-preissianus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/535389-Angianthus-tomentosus

Apalochlamys
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/399614-Apalochlamys-spectabilis

Argentipallium
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/631268-Argentipallium-blandowskianum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353953-Argentipallium-obtusifolium

Calocephalus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/470757-Calocephalus-citreus and https://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Calocephalus~citreus

Cassinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/210574-Cassinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/550323-Cassinia-complanata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/856226-Cassinia-laevis
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/979425-Cassinia-uncata

Chrysocephalum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/244345-Chrysocephalum-apiculatum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/244465-Chrysocephalum-semipapposum

Coronidium
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/560705-Coronidium-gunnianum

Euchiton
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323115-Euchiton-collinus

Helichrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353939-Helichrysum-leucopsideum

Ixodia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/533318-Ixodia-achillaeoides

Kippistia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634240-Kippistia-suaedifolia

Lagenophora
annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1238780-Lagenophora-gunniana
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323152-Lagenophora-stipitata

Leucophyta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323827-Leucophyta-brownii

Microseris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1132139-Microseris-walteri

Minuria
http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?genus=Minuria&species=cunninghamii
http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?genus=Minuria&species=integerrima
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634286-Minuria-leptophylla and http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?genus=Minuria&species=leptophylla

Olearia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/428475-Olearia-axillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/920259-Olearia-brachyphylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/921413-Olearia-calcarea
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/790933-Olearia-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1062511-Olearia-decurrens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/701015-Olearia-grandiflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553374-Olearia-lanuginosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/735459-Olearia-lepidophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787671-Olearia-magniflora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787696-Olearia-muelleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/553609-Olearia-pannosa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787686-Olearia-passerinoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/788285-Olearia-picridifolia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/733631-Olearia-pimeleoides
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/792590-Olearia-tubuliflora

Ozothamnus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1322581-Ozothamnus-decurrens
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/321191-Ozothamnus-diosmifolius
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/971807-Ozothamnus-retusus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/602537-Ozothamnus-turbinatus

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353931-Senecio-pinnatifolius
(previously named Senecio 'lautus', http://flora.sa.gov.au/cgi-bin/speciesfacts_display.cgi?form=speciesfacts&name=Senecio_lautus)

Sonchus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/903022-Sonchus-megalocarpus

Vittadinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/481355-Vittadinia-blackii
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/406979-Vittadinia-dissecta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/406989-Vittadinia-gracilis

Xerochrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511273-Xerochrysum-macranthum

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

Angianthus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1251023-Angianthus-cunninghamii
possibly Angianthus preissianus https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/64784983

Argentipallium
https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/13327 and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/854468-Argentipallium-niveum
https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/13329 and https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/854471-Argentipallium-tephrodes

Cratystylis
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/550026-Cratystylis-conocephala

Helichrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353939-Helichrysum-leucopsideum

Kippistia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/634240-Kippistia-suaedifolia and https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/8094

Lagenophora
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511242-Lagenophora-huegelii
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1319068-Lagenophora-platysperma

Leucophyta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/323827-Leucophyta-brownii

Minuria
https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/8110

Olearia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/428475-Olearia-axillaris
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/790933-Olearia-ciliata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1347866-Olearia-imbricata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1006063-Olearia-lehmanniana
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/735459-Olearia-lepidophylla
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/787696-Olearia-muelleri
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/713617-Olearia-paucidentata
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1307906-Olearia-revoluta
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511257-Olearia-rudis

Ozothamnus
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1307129-Ozothamnus-lepidophyllus
Annual? https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/1352663-Ozothamnus-blackallii

Pembertonia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/908163-Pembertonia-latisquamea

Pithocarpa
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511279-Pithocarpa-cordata

Senecio
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/353931-Senecio-pinnatifolius

Sonchus
Sonchus megalocarpus (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actites)
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/903022-Sonchus-megalocarpus

Vittadinia
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/481355-Vittadinia-blackii

Xerochrysum
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/511273-Xerochrysum-macranthum

To be continued in https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/73371-how-convergent-are-perennial-daisies-in-mediterranean-type-climates-part-2#...

Posted on December 10, 2022 11:34 AM by milewski milewski | 27 comments | Leave a comment

December 13, 2022

How convergent are perennial daisies in mediterranean-type climates? part 2

@tonyrebelo @jeremygilmore @ludwig_muller @botaneek @troos @wynand_uys @kai_schablewski @benjamin_walton @jrebman @graysquirrel @grnleaf @catchang @reodell @matt_g @cwbarrows @arboretum_amy @jdmore @andyjones1 @eitel @ludovica_ @diegoalmendras @nodora @dianastuder @venturefoth @steven_molteno @sedgesrock @michaelcincotta @yatesy @alan_dandie @reiner @yvettevanwijk1941 @ninakerr01 @ellurasanctuary @adriaan_grobler @alastairpotts @david_lyttle @mark_smale @lloyd_esler @john_barkla @richardgill @craigpeter @russellcumming @guillaume_papuga @kwonganlover @chrisjonkers

...continued from https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/73287-how-convergent-are-perennial-daisies-in-mediterranean-type-climates-part-1#

NUMBERS OF GENERA AND SPECIES:

Under mediterranean-type climates, the floras of perennial daisies show the following decreasing order in richness of spp.: South Africa (more than 600 spp.) > California (about 250 spp.) > Chile > South Australia > Western Australia.

The numbers of genera follow the same order, except in the case of the two richest floras. This is because California has by far the most genera: 71, compared with 54 in South Africa.

The region in South Africa is less extensive than e.g. Sardinia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sardinia) or Sicily (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicily). Yet, it contains up to 620 spp. of perennial daisies (readers, please correct this by eliminating any annual/biennial spp. listed in part 1).

This forms an extreme contrast with Western Australia. In this region, there are few indigenous genera (14) and spp. (26 at most) of perennial daisies (and even annual spp. are few).

An obvious biogeographical pattern in California is that the flora of daisies is richest at high altitudes in the Sierra Nevada range (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Nevada) - the highest peak of which (4421 m. a.s.l.) is also the highest point in the contiguous United States of America. Many of these spp. do not extend down to the mediterranean-type climate (the altitudinal threshold of which I assume to be 2000 m a.s.l.).

GROWTH-FORMS WITHIN THE PERENNIAL CATEGORY:

The daisies in the various regions differ far more than predicted by the principle of evolutionary convergence.

In particular,

  • the floras of daisies, at the generic level, are largely different among the regions,
  • the floristic differences are accompanied by surprising differences in growth-forms and other ecological features, and
  • even where the genera are in common, the spp. tend not to resemble each other in growth-forms.

Shared genera include

A remarkable genus, in the context of phylogenetic sharing among the regions with the mediterranean-type climate, is Senecio (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senecio).

This genus is indigenous to all these regions on Earth, including the Mediterranean Basin itself. However, Senecio has speciated and radiated ecologically in South Africa - far more than even in California. For example, at least three spp. of Senecio in South Africa have foliar succulence (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/99438247) under the mediterranean-type climate.

The growth-forms of perennial daisies are largely different in the various regions, as follows.

In Western Australia, the flora of daisies and the range of growth-forms are both limited.

In California, the indigenous daisies tend to resemble the confamilial weeds and ruderal pioneers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruderal_species) in ploughed, mined, and urbanised landscapes worldwide. This includes typical thistles (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thistle), no genus or species of which is indigenous to the other regions in this study.

In South Africa, a considerable number of spp. (e.g. in genera Euryops, https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/20174572, Metalasia, https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/589916-Metalasia-densa, and Felicia, https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/528743-Felicia-filifolia) have an ericoid growth-form (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ericoid).

These are 'sclerophyllous' low shrubs with small, terete or cylindrically rolled (but not spinescent) leaves, resembling Erica (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erica_(plant)).

In California, only Ericameria contains ericoid spp. (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/144172914 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/138187830).

In Australia, ericoid daisies are absent. This growth-form is extremely common in the vegetation, but is occupied by families such as Myrtaceae (e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baeckea), to the exclusion of daisies.

I have found limited information on the spectrum of growth-forms in the case of Chile. However, several spp. of daisies are drought-deciduous (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drought_deciduous) under the mediterranean-type climate in Chile and California.

Deciduousness (including winter-deciduousness) seems unusual among daisies, and drought-deciduousness - which generally correlates with nutrient-rich soils - is rare in South Africa and absent in Australia, under the mediterranean-type climate.

The genus Chaetanthera (https://www.inaturalist.org/journal/milewski/73287-perennial-daisies-in-mediterranean-type-climates-part-1/edit) is remarkable for

  • its morphological plasticity, and
  • having speciated in the central part of the country.

However, only two perennial spp. of Chaetanthera occur under the mediterranean-type climate in Chile. Thus, Chile lacks the multi-spp. 'evolutionary radiations' so obvious in the lists of genera that I have presented for California and, particularly, South Africa.

POSSIBLE EXPLANATION:

It is clear that, in defiance of theoretical predictions, indigenous daisies differ among the various regions with mediterranean-type climates. Most of the genera occur only in a particular region, and even the shared genera express themselves differently in the various regions.

These differences could be analysed in enough ways to fill a whole book. However, I choose to focus on the extreme richness of perennial daisies in South Africa vs the extreme poverty of perennial daisies in Western Australia.

The floristic poverty of daisies is one of the most remarkable features of Western Australia under the mediterranean-type climate. It seems particularly anomalous because, among all the regions on Earth with mediterranean-type climates, Western Australia and South Africa seem to be most analogous in geographical situation and the widespread incidence of sandy substrates.

This disparity in the floras cannot be explained by geographic isolation.

For example, the remote Galapagos archipelago (https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1903.tb04962.x) contains about as many genera and spp. of perennial daisies as the southwest botanical province (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botanical_Provinces_of_Western_Australia), which is fully contiguous with the continent of Australia.

However, the disparities may partly be explained by nuances within an ecological syndrome based on flat topography, senile substrates, nutrient-poor soils, and intense wildfires (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00017.x).

A clue is that the typically Australasian genus Olearia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olearia) contains more spp. in South Australia than in Western Australia, under the mediterranean-type climate. This is associated with the slight renewal of nutrients brought by the topography (Mt Lofty range,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Lofty_Ranges, and, marginally, Flinders range, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flinders_Ranges) and Murray River (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murray_Mouth), in South Australia.

It is hard to generalise about a group as diverse as daisies. However, I offer the following conceptual framework.

Many of the important families under the mediterranean-type climate in southwestern Australia, and to a lesser extent southwestern South Africa, have rhizal adaptations to regimes of poverty of phosphorus, zinc, and other nutrients, and to depletion of organic nitrogen by intense combustion.

For example, Proteaceae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteaceae) and Restionaceae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restionaceae) have cluster roots (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_root#:~:text=Cluster%20roots%2C%20also%20known%20as,just%20beneath%20the%20leaf%20litter.), and Fabaceae have nitrogen-fixing nodules (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_nodule).

One of the distinctive aspects of daisies is that they generally lack rhizal specialisations, beyond the arbuscular mycorrhizae (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arbuscular_mycorrhiza) present in most plants. In this sense, they tend not to be particularly adapted to the nutritional regime epitomised by southwestern Australia, where soils are extremely depleted and wildfires are extremely pervasive.

Daisies instead tend - as a bold generalisation - to be adapted to regimes of physical disturbance of soils, whether by animals or by inanimate means such as wind, water, or gravity. The light, wind-dispersed seeds typical of daisies are suited to prompt arrival wherever patches of disturbed ground arise, ranging in size from molehills through landslides to windblown dune-systems.

One of the puzzling differences between Australia and southern Africa is in the incidence of fossorial and subterranean animals such as mole-rats (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blesmol).

These animals occur widely in South Africa, even on soils derived from sandstone or quartzite, whereas they are absent or relatively scarce even on deep loams in Australia.

Furthermore, South Africa is unusually rich in other digging mammals such as golden moles (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_mole) and the aardvark (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aardvark), which lack counterparts even in California and Chile.

All the regions studied here, except for those in Australia, have mole-rats or analogous rodents (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuco-tuco and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botta%27s_pocket_gopher).

Soil-disturbing animals affect the environment not only physically but also nutritionally. This is because turnover of topsoil and litter - like tilling in horticulture/agriculture - tends to promote mineralisation. This favours unspecialised rhizal systems, such as those of most daisies.

According to this framework, there is a nearly categorical difference, environmentally, between South Africa and Western Australia.

The regime in Australia typically minimises the normal rate of recycling of nutrients, punctuated by occasional deposition of ash by wildfires that consume green crowns as well as dead plant-parts. This combustion-based, extremely episodic reycling is wasteful of nitrogen, sulphur, selenium, and other nutrients, volatilised in smoke or subsequently leached from the soil.

This framework may help to explain why nitrogen-fixing plants have a far greater incidence in Australia than in South Africa, even where climates are similar. Just as southwestern Australia is poor in daisies, it is rich in both

  • nitrogen-fixing leguminous and casuarinaceous plants, and
  • ectomycorrhizal plants (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ectomycorrhiza), in which the rhizal mutualism with powerful fungi retrieves nitrogen from litter - in a way unrecorded in any plant in South Africa under the mediterranean-type climate

A relationship worth testing, in future, is that between daisies and nitrogen-fixing plants in Australia and South Africa. I predict that in kwongan (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwongan), fynbos (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fynbos), and other relevant types of vegetation, there is an inverse correlation between nitrogen-fixing plants (Fabaceae, Casuarinaceae, Zamiaceae, Myricaceae, etc.) and daisies.

I further predict that this inverse correlation applies to the similar climates in Chile and California - where Rhamnaceae (e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trevoa and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceanothus) have partly usurped the nitrogen-fixing role from Fabaceae..

Posted on December 13, 2022 02:17 AM by milewski milewski | 9 comments | Leave a comment